Cholesterol is an organic compound that is an important element in the structure of cell membranes and is found in all tissues of the body. It is also related to the synthesis of certain hormones. The body synthesizes a large part of the required amount of cholesterol in the liver, but it is also important to get enough from food - through various animal products.
Lipoproteins are complexes that transport water-insoluble cholesterol and triglycerides. The function of low-density lipoproteins is to transport cholesterol to different parts of the body and are therefore responsible for its deposition on the walls of blood vessels. These complexes are better known as "bad cholesterol".
High-density lipoproteins "steal" cholesterol from blood vessels and transport it to the liver. They are better known as "good cholesterol" . The increased amount of cholesterol circulating in the blood vessels and microdamages to the inner membrane of the vessels leads to a gradual deposition of cholesterol plaques and narrowing of the lumen of the blood vessel.
Elevated cholesterol is one of the risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic changes in blood vessels, but in itself it is not a sufficient criterion to trigger the process of atherosclerosis. Changes in the vascular endothelium due to high blood pressure, exposure to toxins and others are of major importance.
The wrong approach is to impose strict diets that limit all types of foods that contain cholesterol. In cases where the body does not get enough cholesterol from food, it is readjusted to increase its synthesis. It is recommended to consume moderate amounts of foods that contain cholesterol, but necessarily against the background of a varied and balanced diet.
In patients with elevated levels of total cholesterol in the blood, it is recommended to eat lean meats - beef, turkey, chicken (but with removed skin, which is rich in saturated fat), and rabbit. Two to three times a week consumption of fish - mackerel, herring, salmon, which are fatty and rich in omega-3-unsaturated fatty acids and are related to slowing the process of atherosclerosis.
Some types of nuts are rich in omega-3 fatty acids - walnuts, almonds, vegetable fats - olive oil, unrefined sunflower oil, linseed oil and others. Insoluble fiber (fiber) in some foods (legumes, whole grain bread, brown rice, fruit) interferes with the absorption of some fats in food by binding to them in the intestine and preventing their absorption. In patients with elevated cholesterol levels, more frequent consumption of fiber-rich foods is recommended .
It is important to limit the intake of high-fat foods - mayonnaise, sauces, pork, cream, melted cheese, high-fat milk - over 1.5%, as well as all foods that are prepared by frying.
The cholesterol content in the so-called by-products (kidneys, brain, liver), semi-finished products, including all types of sausages - ham, salami, sausages and others. Many seafood and caviar are high in cholesterol.
The complete exclusion of eggs from the menu, and in particular their yolks, has been mistaken . In addition to cholesterol, yolks also contain a significant amount of nutrients such as choline and lecithin. In addition, fat-soluble vitamins - A and D, some important macro-and micronutrients - iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, calcium and zinc.
It is important to increase physical activity with an emphasis on the so-called. ergometric type of load ("cardio") and not to such an extent of isometric exercises.
It is recommended to monitor cholesterol levels once a year . Its values are not strictly dependent on a person's weight and age. Genetic predisposition is also essential. This explains why even in young or weak people it is possible to report high levels of cholesterol in the blood. 4068