How many calories does a person spend during the day? Surprisingly, there is no single answer to this question. Calorie consumption is an individual indicator that depends on genetics, gender, age, height, weight, habitat and physical activity. Taking into account all these factors, you can roughly calculate how many calories you consume per day and what amount is enough to
How many calories does a person spend during the day? Surprisingly, there is no single answer to this question. Calorie consumption is an individual indicator that depends on genetics, gender, age, height, weight, habitat and physical activity. Taking into account all these factors, you can roughly calculate how many calories you need per day and what amount is enough to maintain a stable weight.
A calorie is a unit of heat energy change , or more precisely, the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 g Celsius. The word comes from the French calorie, which was formed from the Latin calor, which means "heat". The Swedish physicist Johann Wilke, who lived in the 18th century, was the first to use the term " calorie ", and since then this indicator has been used to determine the amount of energy needed by the body for normal functioning.
The calorie content of a particular product is the amount of energy that the body receives during its digestion. The three main elements in the composition of food - proteins, fats, carbohydrates - contain different amounts of calories and, therefore, provide the body with different amounts of energy . Most food manufacturers list the nutrient content on the package in kilocalories to crunch the numbers. 1 kilocalorie ( kcal ) = 1000 calories . In colloquial speech, the word "calorie" is most often used - because it is easier to pronounce.
Calculating the daily calorie limit is one of the tools you can use to control your weight and take care of your health.
Calorie absorption , like metabolism in general, is affected by many factors, slowing down or speeding up the process. For example, medication, muscle mass, love of spicy or salty food, smoking, etc. Daily calorie expenditure depends primarily on daily physical activity, but in general, men burn more calories than women. There are average calorie consumption norms that change with age: the older a person is, the fewer calories he needs.
Inactive lifestyle: from 2000 to 2400 kcal for men and from 1600 to 2000 for women.
Moderate activity: 2200-2800 kcal for men, 1800-2200 for women.
Active lifestyle: 2400-3000 kcal for men and 2000-2400 kcal for women.
Seasonal weather changes also affect calorie absorption . In cold climates, more energy is needed to maintain a constant body temperature because metabolism increases to generate heat. Thus, walking on the street in winter, people spend more calories than during summer walks.
To determine how many calories a specific person needs, you need to calculate the individual level of basal metabolism and determine the activity coefficient.
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the approximate number of calories burned during the day at rest. That is, it is the minimum amount of energy needed to maintain the vital activity of the body, including breathing, heartbeat, digestion of food, but without taking into account physical exertion.
In order to calculate RBM, nutritionists use 2 standard equations: the Harris-Benedict formula and the Mifflin-St. Geor formula, which were named after the scientists who developed the principle of counting calories .In the 1984 edition, the Harris-Benedict formula looks like this:
Calculation for men: 88.362 + (13.397 * weight in kg) + (4.799 * height in cm) - (5.677 * age in years).
Calculation for women: 447.593 + (9.247 * weight in kg) + (3.098 * height in cm) - (4.330 * age in years).
Calculation for men: (10 * weight in kg) + (6.25 * height in cm) - (5 * age in years) + 5.
Calculation for women: (10 * weight in kg) + (6.25 * height in cm) - (5 * age in years) - 161.
Having calculated the RBM, it is necessary to multiply it by the coefficient of physical activity so that the calculation of calorie expenditure corresponds to the lifestyle. For this, standard coefficients are adopted:
1,2 - if all activity is reduced to movements between the bed and the sofa.
1,375 - if you have heard about the benefits of activity and do things up to 3 times a week.
1.55 - if your life includes moderate sports from 3 to 5 times a week.
1,725 - if you load yourself with heavy training 6-7 times a week.
1.9 - if you study full-time, that is, you work physically, train twice a day, do strength exercises.
If all these formulas are too complicated for you, you can always find an online calculator or ask a nutritionist to make an individual calculation for you.
At rest, about 20% of the energy consumed is used for brain metabolism. Other calories are burned in the process of basal metabolism - blood circulation, digestion, respiration, cellular respiration, tissue repair and growth. Also, a person needs mechanical energy to work skeletal muscles to maintain posture and move.
How many calories are spent when a person eats depends on the time of day. During breakfast, the body burns about 60 kcal , at lunch - 85 kcal , at dinner - 60 kcal . Most of all energy is spent on digesting proteins of animal origin: 30-40% of the nutritional value of protein goes to its assimilation. Carbohydrate digestion costs are 4-7%, fats - only 2-4%.
During sleep, a person on average spends 60-70 kcal per hour, provided that you sleep for at least 8 hours and did not eat carbohydrates or fats at night.
Calorie consumption at work depends on mental and physical exertion. On average, during an 8-hour working day, office workers spend about 550 kcal , service and education workers - up to 1050 kcal . Those who work physically (loaders, athletes, etc.) burn the most calories - about 2000 kcal .
Even if you are sitting at home, there are chances to burn more calories . Resting in a lying position will consume no more than 70 kcal per hour, but for cleaning, for example, you can spend 120-280 kcal (washing dishes - 50, windows - 280, floors - 280 kcal ). A 10-minute shower after cleaning - another minus 40 kcal .
Of course, most calories are burned during sports.
Running - 380 kcal / hour.
Swimming - 200-600 kcal (depending on the style).
Cycling - 220-450 kcal .
Skating or rollerblading - 200-620 kcal .
Dancing - 350 kcal .
Jumping on a rope - 350 kcal .
Yoga enthusiasts burn about 250-300 kcal per hour .
You can burn 350-400 kcal per hour of circuit training .
Strength training burns an average of 400 calories .
If you do not like sports, then walking will be useful, but keep in mind that a leisurely walk burns about 140 kcal / hour, and a fast one - 180.