How To Preserve Products For A Long Time

Leticia Celentano Author: Leticia Celentano Time for reading: ~5 minutes Last Updated: November 10, 2022
How To Preserve Products For A Long Time

In order to optimize your food expenses, it is not enough to know how to plan your menu and buy products correctly. No less important aspect is the correct storage of products. What to do with products bought in reserve, or with seasonal vegetables and fruits that you want to enjoy in winter, but without overpaying for their greenhouse counterparts in supermarkets. Different methods

In order to optimize your food expenses, it is not enough to know how to plan your menu and buy products correctly . An equally important aspect is the correct storage of products . After all, if we are going to plan a menu for a week/month, buy seasonal and promotional products in stock, and also visit stores and markets less often, buying large batches of food, then we need to know how to properly store all this so that throw away money to the wind, in the end throwing away the spoiled . We can store some products and dishes in the refrigerator - for a fairly short period of time. How to properly store products in the refrigerator, read in the previous article - http://harchi.info/articles/zberigannya-produktiv-harchuvannya-u-holodylnyku.

And what to do with products bought in reserve, or with seasonal vegetables and fruits that you want to enjoy in winter, but without overpaying for their greenhouse counterparts in supermarkets.

 

Let's consider the main ways of long -term storage of products , which housewives have mastered today.

 

Conservation

Various methods of technical processing of food products to inhibit the vital activity of microorganisms that lead to food spoilage , as well as other methods of increasing the shelf life of food products , are commonly called conservation.

In a broad sense, conservation refers to any process that significantly increases the shelf life of products in a form suitable for consumption.

Canning is divided into a set of measures to isolate the product , destroy bacteria and spores present in it, change its composition and storage conditions to prevent the development of microorganisms in it , protect the product from destruction under the influence of high temperatures and sunlight.

Canding (conservation with sugar)

A high concentration of sugar leads to the creation of minimum humidity and high osmotic pressure in the product, which prevents the development of microorganisms . This type of preservation is mainly used for fruits and berries. These are well-known jams, jams, jams, pastilles, candied fruits (drying of the product is also added here ).

 

Pickles

A rather ancient method of conservation. It is mainly used for storing fish and meat. During this process, "salt" extracts moisture from products , as a result of which the product is saturated with salt solution, the activity of water decreases - the environment becomes unfavorable for most bacteria.

Fermentation

When food is fermented, lactic acid fermentation of sugars produces lactic acid, which is an unfavorable environment for most microorganisms , as a result of which they stop developing or die. Contrary to popular opinion, the salt that is added during fermentation is not of decisive importance and is intended only to improve the taste of products , so its amount can be reduced.

Pickling

The effect of pickling is somewhat similar to fermentation and is also based on the creation of an unfavorable environment for microorganisms by immersing them in a solution of food acid. Usually, citric, acetic, lactic and other acids are used, the most widely used of which is acetic.

Drying

Drying is the oldest method of food preparation . The essence of the process is to remove moisture from the product , thereby creating an unfavorable environment for the development of microorganisms . Drying can be carried out both in natural conditions - in the sun and air, and in a vacuum.

 

Jealousy

The essence of the method is also to reduce the moisture content of food products . Gelling is performed with the help of substances such as gelatin, alginates, starch and pectin. After that, the product becomes an unsuitable habitat for most bacteria and mold. Thus, marmalade is made.

Smoking

Smoking is based on two processes: chemical preservation and partial dehydration (sometimes quite insignificant). During this process, the product is dried and permeated with smoke: aromatic hydrocarbons have a preservative effect and give a characteristic aroma.

Withering

This preservation method combines dehydration and partial preservation with table salt, which makes the product unsuitable for the life of microorganisms .

Sterilization and pasteurization

Pasteurization — heating the product to a temperature of 60-70ºС for some time. During this, the bacteria will die, but their spores will remain - this is why pasteurized products must be kept in the cold. Partial pasteurization can also be used: after heating, the product is left at room temperature for a period sufficient for the development of new bacteria from spores, and then it is pasteurized again, such actions are repeated several times, if necessary.

During sterilization , the product is boiled at 100ºС or, in order to achieve the maximum result and destroy all spores of heat-resistant bacteria, it is heated to high temperatures under pressure.

Pasteurization does not ensure too long storage of food, sterilization gives a longer effect.

Cooling and freezing

During cooling, the growth and development of bacteria slows down, and when the temperature reaches 0ºС and below (freezing) it stops altogether. However, with this method, microorganisms will remain alive and resume their vital activity after defrosting, so chilled and frozen products must be stored at appropriate temperatures. Freezing allows you to preserve almost the most useful properties of the product , compared to other preservation methods.

 

Biological conservation

Such traditional methods of storing products as their special fermentation — the fermentation of perishable substances with the accompanying formation of preservatives — acids and other microbial metabolites — have been used since ancient times. They include the above-mentioned fermentation, fermentation (in the production of wine and vinegar), etc. Also, cheese can be a vivid example of biological preservation. The bacteria forming this food product prevent the development of other microorganisms in it .

Sealing and vacuum packaging

Sealing consists in protecting the product from the ingress of microorganisms and from the air.

The essence of vacuum packaging is to create an oxygen-free environment, which is also unfavorable for the vital activity of bacteria.

Irradiation

Irradiation of the product is a process that consists in affecting the food product with ionizing radiation in order to destroy microorganisms , bacteria, viruses and insects that may be present in the food. Irradiated products do not become radioactive, but in some cases can lead to significant chemical changes.

Preservation using chemical preservatives

This method is widely used in industrial production. Chemical substances that neutralize microorganisms are used during preservation . The use of chemical preservatives is strictly regulated by law: only certain chemicals are allowed in certain quantities that are safe for human health. For example, such as: benzoic, sulfuric and sorbic acids - antiseptics, as well as antibiotics and antioxidants.

The best option is sorbic acid — it is characterized by a high antimicrobial effect and the absence of side effects for the body. As antibiotics, only those that are not used in medicine can be used, with the exception of biomycin ice, which is used for long-distance transportation of meat and fish.

Antioxidants are used to prevent the deterioration of fats. The use of such substances as: butyloxyanisole, butyloxytoluene and dodecyl gallate is acceptable. Also, ascorbic acid or ascorbyl palmitate can be used as an antioxidant.

 

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