Replaceable Amino Acids Benefits and Nutrition Facts

Published on: 01/06/2022

High-containing Replaceable Amino Acids Foods

Nutrient Content Reference
Skimmed milk powder 23.836 24
Cotton, seed 23.212 23
Rapeseed, seed 20.13 20
Baltic cheese, m.dzh. 20% in dry. в-ве 18.89 19
Apricot, stone fruit seed 18.053 18
Peanuts 17.783 18
Emmental cheese, m.d.zh. 44% in dry. в-ве 16.78 17
Mustard, seed 16.761 17
Biysk cheese, m.d.zh. 50% in dry. в-ве 16.755 17
Poshekhon cheese, m.dzh. 45% in dry. в-ве 16.75 17
Powdered milk 25% fat, whole 16.353 16
Cherry, stone seed 15.886 16
Swiss cheese, m.d.zh. 50% in dry. в-ве 15.61 16
Uglich cheese, m.dzh. 45% in dry. в-ве 15.465 15
Soviet cheese, m.d.zh. 50% in dry. в-ве 15.425 15
Dutch cheese, bar cheese, m.d.zh. 45% in dry. в-ве 15.195 15
Kostroma cheese, m.d.zh. 45% in dry. в-ве 14.745 15
Susanina cheese, m.d.zh. 46% in dry. в-ве 14.44 14
Cheddar cheese 31% fat, m.d. 50% in dry. в-ве 14.275 14
Russian cheese, m.dzh. 50% in dry. в-ве 14.23 14
Processed cheese, Russian, m.dzh. 45% in dry. в-ве 13.345 13
Dry cream 42.0% fat 13.292 13
Sunflower, sunflower seeds 13.121 13
Sesame seeds 12.883 13
Roquefort cheese 27.5% fat, m.d. 50% in dry. в-ве 12.655 13
Low-fat cottage cheese, 0.6% fat 10.27 10
Processed cheese "Cinderella", m.d.zh. 20% in dry. в-ве 10.1 10
Processed cheese "sweet", m.d.zh. 20% in dry. в-ве 9.65 10
Brynza from cow's milk, m.d.zh. 40% in dry. в-ве 9.65 10
Corn, germ 9.351 9
Processed cheese "snow white", m.d.zh. 50% in dry. в-ве 8.81 9
Cottage cheese 18% fat 8.115 8
Plum, stone seed 7.614 8
Processed cheese "mint", m.d.zh. 30% in dry. в-ве 7.54 8
Processed cheese "cheburashka", m.d.zh. 50% in dry. в-ве 5.995 6
Processed cheese "honey", m.d.zh. 30% in dry. в-ве 5.97 6
Palm kernel 5.31 5
Processed cheese "fairy tale", m.d.zh. 30% in dry. в-ве 5.15 5
Condensed milk with 8.5% fat sugar, whole 4.512 5
Condensed milk without sugar 8.3% fat, sterilized 4.318 4
Sheep's milk 3.134 3
Yogurt 3.2% fat, 5% protein, natural 2.912 3
Buffalo milk 2.227 2
Creamy ice cream 2.085 2
Camel's milk 1.898 2
10% fat cream, pasteurized 1.812 2
Goat's milk 1.784 2
Raw cow's milk 3.6% fat, farm (unpasteurized, unsterilized, unboiled) 1.759 2
Sterilized 3.5% fat milk 1.693 2
Kefir 3.2% fat 1.689 2

Nutrition Facts About Replaceable Amino Acids

Avitaminosis - Symptoms And Diet Therapy

Avitaminosis  and  hypovitaminosis  are serious deviations in the functioning of the body. Very often, we do not notice the absence or significant lack of  vitamins  in our own body, referring to other diseases.

Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis of vitamin A

Vitamin A (also known as retinol) belongs to fat-soluble vitamins , it is formed when carotene enters our body together with food.


Symptoms of a lack or absence of vitamin A in the body are impaired vision at dusk and in the dark ("chicken blindness"), dry eyes, conjunctivitis, softening of the cornea of ​​the eye and the formation of ulcers, dryness and peeling of the skin, atrophic changes in sweat and sebaceous glands. Very frequent symptoms of hypovitaminosis of vitamin A are susceptibility to skin lesions and infectious diseases of the respiratory, urinary and digestive systems. And in children, vitamin A deficiency manifests itself in loss of appetite, anemia, and growth retardation.

These deviations can be treated in two ways: diet therapy (enrichment of the diet with vitamin A) and medical intervention. In the first case, the liver of marine fish and animals, fish oil, cheese, cream, butter, egg yolk — sources of vitamin A — are introduced into the diet ; as well as carrots, sweet peppers, green onions, parsley, sorrel, lettuce, spinach, black currants, apricots, sea buckthorn and rose hips are sources of beta-carotene. In case of a slight deficiency, vitamin A is prescribed medicinally in the form of pills, in more severe cases - administration of the drug in the form of injections.


Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D belongs to fat-soluble vitamins . It is formed in our body under the action of UV rays, or comes from food.

In children, the lack of vitamin D in the body is manifested by clinical symptoms of rickets, which begins at 2-3 months, namely: excitement, anxiety, restless sleep, muscle dystonia, increased sweating, slowing of psychomotor development, changes in shape and various distortions of bones, and as well as pathologies of internal organs. In adults, hypovitaminosis of vitamin D causes such symptoms as increased fatigue, muscle weakness, insomnia, burning in the mouth and throat, decreased appetite and weight loss, muscle cramps in the arms and legs, frequent fractures and bone cracks.

To treat the lack of vitamin D through diet therapy , babies are advised to breastfeed exclusively (faster to prevent the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency ), or they are transferred to adapted milk formulas, complementary feeding is started a month earlier than the established term. To treat vitamin D deficiency in adults, fish oil, butter, egg yolk, liver, meat are added to the diet (or the amount is increased).

Also, treatment of hypovitaminosis D involves drug therapy, physiotherapy treatment, massage and physical therapy.

Lack of vitamin E

Vitamin E belongs to fat-soluble vitamins , our body receives it together with food.

Hypovitaminosis E is manifested by the destruction of erythrocytes, deposition of sphingolipids in muscle tissue responsible for cellular recognition, creatineuria (excretion of creatine together with urine), peripheral neuropathies, body instability, loss of balance, impaired sense of movement of arms and legs in space.

During diet therapy for the treatment of vitamin E deficiency, liver, eggs, unrefined vegetable oils, cereals and beans, cereal sprouts, milk, meat are introduced into the diet. Medicines with vitamin E are also prescribed, first for treatment, and then for prevention of the disease.

Avitaminosis of vitamin C

Ascorbic acid belongs to water-soluble vitamins and enters our body with food. Most often, spring vitamin deficiency refers to hypovitaminosis C, since in winter our diet contains few fresh fruits and vegetables.

Symptoms of a lack of vitamin C are a condition of the body called scurvy, which manifests itself in varying degrees of severity in the following ways: general weakness, weight loss, pain in the joints and muscles, hyperemia of the gums, their swelling and bleeding, hemorrhages in the area of ​​the hair follicles of the skin of the legs , anemia, slow healing of wounds and scratches, swelling of the legs, arthritis against the background of hemorrhages inside the joints. Hypovitaminosis of vitamin C in children is manifested by bad breath, anemia, weakness, white coating on the tongue, small hemorrhages on the skin and mucous membranes.

This vitamin deficiency is treated , like the previous ones, through diet therapy and/or medication. In the first case, the diet includes rose hips, sea buckthorn, black currants, tangerines, lemons, apples, cherries, rowanberries, strawberries, cabbage, greens. It is very important to subject vegetables and fruits to as little heat treatment as possible.


Vitamin K deficiency

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin , our body receives it from the outside and synthesizes it in the intestines.

Lack of vitamin K is manifested by nasal, subcutaneous, gastrointestinal bleeding, gum bleeding, and intracranial bleeding in newborns.

During diet therapy , Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, spinach, lettuce, zucchini, and beef liver are added to the diet. Treatment is supplemented with medication.

Avitaminosis of vitamin B1

Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, belongs to water-soluble vitamins .

Symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency are called Beri-Beri disease. Primary symptoms are manifested in the form of headaches, general weakness, rapid fatigue, shortness of breath during exercise. The dry form of the disease is manifested by bilateral paresthesias of the feet, calf cramps, pain in the legs and considerable fatigue when walking, walking with emphasis on the heels, muscle atrophy. The cerebral form of the disease has such manifestations as memory disorders, impaired blood circulation in the brain, encephalopathy, ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of the eye muscles), in severe cases - coma and death. The wet form of the disease is manifested by myocardiostrophy, a violation of peripheral vascular resistance. Manifestations of vitamin deficiency in childrenB1 are rather vague, heart failure, absence or vagueness of deep tendon reflexes, aphonia (loss of voice volume) come to the fore.

To treat B1 vitamin deficiency , the diet is enriched with liver, bread made from coarse flour, legumes, cereals, and yeast. In medical treatment, in addition to B1 drugs, group B vitamin therapy is prescribed.

Avitaminosis of vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 belongs to water-soluble vitamins , our body receives it together with plant and animal food.

Vitamin B6 is manifested by weakness, sluggishness, fatigue, insomnia, irritability, as well as seborrheic dermatosis of the scalp, face and neck skin, stomatitis, peripheral paresthesias, convulsions, anemia in children.

To treat vitamin deficiency by diet therapy, the diet is enriched with beans, cereal grains, bananas, liver, meat, fish, kidneys, and yeast. They are also treated with medical drugs.


Avitaminosis of vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is water-soluble, our body mainly receives it together with products of animal origin.

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include weakness, pallor, tachycardia, shortness of breath, tinnitus, paresthesias, muscle atrophy, pathological reflexes, polyneuritis, marked incoordination, anorexia, vitiligo, skin hyperpigmentation, confusion, and depression. Concomitant diseases of vitamin B12 can be hypothyroidism, iron deficiency anemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.

Treatment of this condition is prescribed for the rest of your life. The diet includes liver, kidneys, red meat, fish, seafood, cheese, egg yolks, soy. In parallel, drug treatment is prescribed.

Lack of vitamin B9

Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin , enters our body with food, and is also synthesized in the intestines.

Vitamin B9 deficiency is manifested by pale skin, arterial hypotension, tachycardia, anorexia, jaundice and digestive disorders.

Diet therapy consists in enriching the diet with fresh vegetables, liver, kidneys, eggs and cheese. In some cases, drug treatment is used instead of diet therapy.

Vitamin R deficiency

Vitamins of the P group (also known as flavonoids) are water-soluble and are found in plants in the form of glycoside compounds.

Symptoms of vitamin deficiency P are increased permeability of the vascular wall and the development of hemorrhages, as well as hemorrhages on the skin and mucous membranes. 

Diet therapy consists in introducing citrus fruits, rose hips, red and black currants, mountain ash, and green tea into the diet. Drug treatment is also prescribed.



What Is Hypervitaminosis

An overdose of vitamins carries no less danger than their deficiency. The situation is complicated by the fact that some symptoms of hypervitaminosis (as in the case of vitamin A, for example) can be mistaken for signs of vitamin deficiency — dry skin, brittle nails, etc.


You should not self-prescribe vitamin supplements, so to speak, "for prevention." Because the uncontrolled consumption of vitamins , in particular, when their doses exceed the therapeutic ones, leads to various problems instead of improving the state of health. Hypervitaminosis is especially dangerous for children, pregnant women and the elderly.

If you want to enrich your body with vitamins , you should not rush to the pharmacy - first of all, balance your diet with products containing vitamins and minerals. In this case, the risk of vitamin overdose is minimal.

Hypervitaminosis can be acute or chronic. The acute form of the disease poses a threat to human life, therefore it requires inpatient treatment. It occurs quite rarely with special or accidental ingestion of large doses of one or another vitamin preparation, which are ten times higher than the daily norm. Chronic hypervitaminosis causes changes in internal organs and systems, requiring not only the withdrawal of the drug, but also the appointment of treatment to restore the body.


Hypervitaminosis of vitamin A

An acute overdose of vitamin A leads to intoxication of the body and causes in adults and children nausea, vomiting, increased arterial and intracranial pressure, sharp headache, confusion or loss of consciousness, fever, allergic reactions in the form of a rash, itching of the skin and mucous membranes, Quincke's edema.

Chronic hypervitaminosis A occurs with long-term (more than half a year) and uncontrolled consumption of drugs with vitamin A, or when the body receives more than 500,000 IU of vitamin a day with food. Symptoms of this condition in adults are insomnia, sleep disturbances, tearfulness, aggression, loss of hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, dry and cracked skin, brittle nails, hard and painful seals in the soft tissues of the hands and feet, stiffness of movements, pain and swelling in joints, hypercholesterolemia (endocrine system disease, digestive and metabolic disorders). Symptoms of chronic hypervitaminosis in childrenAnd they appear with regular intake of more than 100 thousand IU per day, such as: decreased appetite, bleeding gums, dryness and violation of the integrity of the skin, nosebleeds and other bleeding.

Vitamin D overdose

With acute hypervitaminosis D in adults, hand tremors, sharp pains in the back and limbs, subcutaneous hemorrhages, symptoms of dehydration - dryness of the skin and mucous membranes, sunken eyeballs, loss of consciousness are observed. In children, such symptoms as clonic-tonic convulsions, fever and loss of consciousness are manifested.

Chronic overdose of vitamin D in adults develops with regular consumption of more than 100,000 IU of vitamin per day and is accompanied by weakness and rapid fatigue, hypertensive crises, headaches, hypercalcemia, muscle weakness, significant weight loss, deforming arthrosis, cardiomyopathy. In children, a pathological condition can occur when the daily norm of the vitamin is exceeded for a long time, even in fairly small numbers, by 2-3 times, and is accompanied by a decrease in appetite or its complete loss, constant thirst, weight loss, lethargy and drowsiness, tachycardia, paleness, grayish or a yellowish tint of the skin, a decrease in muscle tone, cardiomyopathy.


An excess of vitamin E

An acute overdose of vitamin E causes such symptoms in adults and children as nausea, diarrhea, flatulence, increased blood pressure, and in severe cases — hemorrhages in the retina of the eye.

Vitamin E is characterized by low toxicity, so chronic hypervitaminosis rarely develops, but long-term overdose leads to the following reactions in adults: headaches, weakness, loss of ability to work, impaired twilight vision, diarrhea, decreased libido, decreased immunity, increased risk of bleeding, impaired absorption of vitamins D and A, an increase in the level of thyroxine in the blood, in severe cases, the development of myocardial infarction, sepsis, irreversible disorders of the central nervous system, and blood vessel blockage is possible. In children, weakness, apathy, headaches, rapid breathing, muscle weakness, spasmodic pains in the projection of the heart and stomach, decreased immunity are manifested.

Vitamin C hypervitaminosis

Symptoms of acute hypervitaminosis C in adults include increased blood pressure, flushing of the skin, tachycardia, increased blood clotting, and increased risk of blood clots and blood vessel blockages. In children, allergic-type reactions are manifested: rash on the skin and mucous membranes, itching, redness of the skin, nausea and vomiting, convulsions, angioedema.

A chronic excess of vitamin C in adults is manifested by progressive deterioration of vision, insomnia, dizziness, tendency to the formation of stones in the urinary and gall bladder, dyspepsia, dysmenorrhea in women, hormonal disorders. In children, dizziness, constant weakness, pain in the stomach, indigestion, and decreased visual acuity come to the fore.

An excess of vitamin K

Hypervitaminosis K, both acute and chronic, is rare because vitamin K is nontoxic and does not accumulate in the body. In some cases, adults may experience blood coagulation disorders, and newborns may develop hemolytic anemia (destruction of erythrocytes).

Overdose of vitamin B1

The acute form of the disease is extremely rare, causing allergic-type symptoms : skin redness, itching, rash on the skin and mucous membranes, nausea and vomiting, kidney and liver dysfunction, Quincke's edema.

A chronic form of vitamin B1 overdose occurs mainly due to a violation of the enzymatic function of the liver and causes such symptoms as: increased blood pressure, liver dystrophy, increased risk of developing atherosclerosis.


Hypervitaminosis of vitamin B6

Acute hypervitaminosis occurs very rarely and causes allergic reactions ( symptoms are described above).

A chronic form of vitamin B6 overdose occurs when the dose of vitamin B6 is regularly exceeded by more than 1000 times. Causes pain and paresthesias of hands and feet along the course of blood vessels, disturbances of all types of sensitivity in adults; impaired coordination of movements, numbness of the limbs and allergic reactions - in children.

Hypervitaminosis of vitamin B12

The acute form of hypervitaminosis B12 causes anaphylactic shock, heart failure and pulmonary edema in severe cases.

The chronic form causes allergic reactions, fatty hepatosis of the liver, congestive heart failure and leukocytosis in adults. In children, the symptoms are manifested in the form of pain in the heart, tachycardia, increased blood coagulation, urticaria-like rashes on the skin, central nervous system disorders, and leukocytosis in the blood.



Flaxseed Milk Is A Drink Rich In Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Flax milk is a lesser-known version of vegetable "milk". Today, herbal drinks are very common, which more and more people use instead of cow's milk.

As in the case of other types of herbal drinks, the preparation process is relatively simple, but the cost of home preparation will be significantly lower. Flaxseed milk is definitely special because it contains higher than average amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, which are extremely important for good health.

Instructions for preparing a delicious and healthy drink from flax seeds.

You will need only two main ingredients, namely flax seeds and water. In a kitchen blender, first mix 3 cups of water and a cup of flax seeds (if you want to make more milk from flax seeds, you can adjust the amount of ingredients accordingly). After a few minutes of mixing (you can interrupt), turn off the kitchen blender and wait about 10 minutes.

Then filter the mixture through thick cheesecloth. Squeeze out the pulp that remains on top of the cheesecloth to squeeze out as much liquid as possible. You can save the remaining pulp for later use. You can use it in baking or as an additive to cereal. Store flax milk in the refrigerator, where it can be stored for about 5 days.


The drink has a pleasant, slightly nutty taste, which can be improved with the help of various additives. For example, the combination of flax milk and vanilla extract is very tasty, and you can also add ingredients such as cinnamon and cocoa powder to the drink. With these additives, you can cause a slightly sweet aftertaste without using sugar, which would significantly increase the calorie content of the drink (if desired, you can also use classic sugar substitutes such as stevia or erythritol).


Omega-3 fatty acids are especially important for the cardiovascular system and brain. Although the composition of various types of herbal drinks used as a substitute for milk is basically very similar, certain types have certain peculiarities. The biggest feature of flax milk is the content of omega-3 fatty acids, or more precisely, alpha-linolenic acid (ALK). This is a form that can be converted in our body into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHK).

Omega-3 fatty acids are important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. They are also indispensable for protecting our brain from various neurodegenerative diseases and as an aid in reducing the risk of depression and other mood disorders. The positive effects of omega-3 fatty acids are mainly associated with their anti-inflammatory effect. It is known that chronic inflammation is behind many health problems.

Although flaxseed milk may not meet all of your body's omega-3 fatty acid needs, it can be a valuable addition to your diet. Like other herbal drinks, flaxseed milk does not contain cholesterol, which is an additional benefit for the heart and blood vessels. More products for the heart and blood vessels can be found on the website of the online store Phytomarket.


Omega-3 Foods: Benefits Of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids


Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are perhaps the most well-known and widely used supplement in the pharmacological market. They talk about it everywhere: advertising offers new, modern drugs; doctors prescribe to their patients, and bloggers write lengthy social media posts.

Statistics confirm: in Russia in 2012 alone, more than 7.8 million packages of fish oil products, including omega-3s, were sold - what can we say about European countries and the United States? So where does such widespread popularity come from and are these organic compounds so safe? Let's figure it out.

Description and benefits of omega-3

Omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids are organic compounds in the structure of which, in addition to single (in other words, “saturated”), there are also double bonds between carbon atoms. The most famous representatives of this class - eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids - are capable of being formed during the transformation of the essential alpha-linolenic acid - due to the inability of the body to synthesize it, it must be supplied with food or in the form of biological supplements.

  • Omega 3 and the nervous system

It is noteworthy and very important from the point of view of growth and normal development that DHA predominates in the gray matter of the brain. Despite the fact that this acid is also found in breast milk, the needs of the child in it (especially in the first months of life) are very high.

Given that during the last trimester, the formation of omega-3 reserves is very actively carried out - these polyunsaturated acids, penetrating the placental barrier, regulating and selectively (as in the issuance of a visa) passing certain molecules from the mother's body to the child with blood and vice versa, have a powerful stimulating influence on the formation of the Central nervous system. That is why it is recommended for premature babies to consider additional intake of essential omega-3 PUFAs.


In addition, even after birth, these compounds continue to exhibit multiple effects over a very broad spectrum. So, for example, in the course of a study, British scientists found a positive effect of omega-3 in the treatment of ADHD (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder) - at least 40% of children showed higher concentration and concentration, and also small schoolchildren significantly improved their abilities to reading and writing.

  • Omega 3 and vision

In the composition of the cell membranes of retinal photoreceptors, docosahexaenoic acid occupies a leading position among phospholipids. In addition, DHA is also involved in the process of visual pigment regeneration (that is, its restoration).

In addition, polyunsaturated fatty acids in the retina have a protective effect, protecting its delicate structure from reactive oxygen species, inflammatory mediators, and various signaling molecules involved in inflammation processes.

  • Omega-3s and the cardiovascular system

Numerous scientific works show that taking omega-3 PUFAs is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. In particular, this is achieved by reducing the level of triglycerides (due to increased oxidation of the fatty acids that make up them in the liver, as well as inhibition of lipogenesis in general) and increasing the concentration of high-density lipoproteins (HDL - anti-atherogenic), as well as by inhibiting aggregation platelets (that is, their connection with each other and the subsequent formation of a “plug” at the site of damage).

The American Heart Association (American Heart Association) emphasizes: consumption of 4 grams per day of prescription drugs containing omega-3 PUFAs in their composition reduces high levels of triglycerides. However, doctors emphasize: first of all, it is necessary to exclude other causes of their increase: such as hypothyroidism and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

In addition, taking DHA (4 g / day) was accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure - thus, the scientists concluded that omega-3 fatty acids can also affect the endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels.

In addition, omega-3 fatty acids, being included in the phospholipid layer of cell membranes, are able to change their fluidity, as well as control the transmission of signals through them.

These organic compounds, by regulating the function of membrane channels (sodium and calcium), prevent the development of lethal arrhythmias.

Omega-3 PUFAs can instead of arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFAs) act as a substrate (raw material) for the action of an enzyme such as cyclooxygenase. As a result, instead of pro-inflammatory molecules, much less weak reaction products are formed.

  • Omega-3s and Skeletal Muscles

Studies note that the use of omega-3 PUFAs prevents the breakdown of muscle proteins - and this function is associated precisely with the action of EPA.

For example, dietary supplementation of 45 exercise volunteers for 90 days with 2 grams of omega-3s was associated with significant improvements in muscle fiber strength and neuromuscular transmission. It is believed that these results are achieved by increasing the sensitivity of muscle tissue to a neurotransmitter such as acetylcholine, which just takes part in the synapse and thereby stimulates muscle contraction.

In addition, some data point to the ability of omega-3 to activate the formation of new mitochondria due to the increased expression of certain mitochondrial factors and proteins.


Considering that skeletal muscles are insulin-dependent tissues (that is, through the action of this hormone, glucose from the blood enters their cells), any dysfunction in the implementation and regulation of this process leads to insulin resistance - a key stage in the path of type 2 diabetes mellitus. With the development of this pathology, there is a decrease in the absorption of glucose by the muscles, a decrease in the synthesis of glycogen (acting as a reserve reserve of carbohydrates), a violation of the oxidation of fatty acids and, accordingly, an increase in their pool.

Rodents on a high-fat diet, but in the meantime taking fish oil, had less reduced glucose tolerance compared to that observed on a diet rich in fat. In addition, they, although to a lesser extent than the control, sitting on a normal, balanced diet of rodents, but there was a decrease in intracellular lipids and some types of ceramides (markers of lipid-induced insulin resistance).

Signs of an Omega-3 PUFA Deficiency

    1. Low birth weight is based on a study of 12,000 Danish children.

    2. Premature birth - associated with a decrease in the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid in the blood of the child.

    3. Reduced visual acuity - in addition to the previously mentioned mechanisms of action of omega-3 fatty acids, their inhibitory effect on apoptosis (self-programmed death) of retinal epithelial cells is also noted.

    4. Cognitive disorders - in particular, are accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of such a tissue hormone as neuroprotectin D, in the synthesis of which DHA is involved. This biologically active compound inhibits apoptosis of nerve cells by activating a complex cascade of signaling processes and thereby suppresses the development of inflammation.

      In addition, docosahexaenoic acid itself directly inhibits the formation of pro-inflammatory molecules - in particular, in the hippocampus - one of the most important brain structures involved in the mechanisms of the transition of short-term memory to long-term memory, as well as in the formation of emotions.

    5. ADHD is an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder characterized by impaired ability to concentrate, impulsive behavior, lack of self-control and self-control.

  1. Mental and behavioral disorders - associated with accelerated atrophy (in conditions of deficiency of omega-3 PUFAs) of the gray matter of the brain (in particular, in the area of ​​its following structures: hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, prefrontal and temporal cortex), as well as with a violation of the integrity white matter.

    So, in rodents incapable of accumulating DHA, behavioral anomalies, the development of a depression-like state, as well as an increase in heart rate were observed.

  2. Dyslipidemia (increased levels of cholesterol and / or triglycerides in the blood, decreased HDL) and increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

    A study over 30 years of several thousand American scientists showed that eating fish (at least 2 times a week) significantly reduced the likelihood of myocardial infarction.

  3. Skin diseases. Omega-3 PUFAs are used not only in aesthetic medicine as a prevention and treatment of skin aging (due to their activation of the formation of the main connective tissue protein, collagen), but are also actively used in dermatology in the treatment of acne, atopic dermatitis and even psoriasis.

    Interestingly, in an autoimmune disease like psoriasis, which causes red spots, omega-3 metabolites are also found in these plaques - it is believed that they turn into much weaker inflammatory molecules than, say, omega-6.

Absorption of omega-3 PUFAs

As mentioned earlier, both eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids can be formed in the body from their common precursor, the essential alpha-linolenic acid, excellent sources of which are:

  • Linseed oil.

  • Walnuts.

  • Hemp oil.

  • Mustard oil.

  • Milk thistle oil.

The conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA proceeds through complex biochemical reactions - in particular, the lengthening of the carbon chain and the addition of a double bond. Two important genes, FADS1 and FADS2, are actively involved in these processes. In the presence of their polymorphism, an accelerated more efficient transformation can be observed.

The influence of sex hormones on the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid is also interesting - for example, estrogens increase its conversion.

Omega-3, like all fatty acids, are included in the processes of splitting and absorption in the small intestine. So, first, under the action of specific pancreatic enzymes, they are released from food components. In addition, the condition for the course of this process will be the normal outflow of bile - a secret formed by liver cells and acting not only as an emulsifier, but also activating all pancreatic enzymes.


So before you include omega-3 PUFA supplements in your diet, make sure your digestive system is healthy. If necessary, you can consider taking plant enzymes or their animal counterparts, as well as biliary stimulants. It is also important to diagnose the gallbladder for the presence of stones in its body or in the hepatic / bile ducts.

Absorption of omega-3 occurs on the villi of intestinal epithelial cells - here they are delivered by special transport machines - micelles, which are included with the help of bile acids.

Causes of Omega-3 PUFA Deficiency

    1. Insufficient consumption of oily fish is perhaps one of the most common causes of a lack of omega-3 fatty acids. So, say, in the US, according to statistics, the average person eats less than 13 grams of fish per day - for comparison: the recommended minimum is 40 grams.

      In addition, the modern Western diet is rich in their antagonists - omega-6 with pronounced pro-inflammatory abilities.

      Add salmon, salmon, herring, trout and tuna to your diet - they are the richest in these fatty acids.

    2. Violation of the outflow of bile (cholestasis) is another common problem that leads to a lack of fat-soluble compounds (vitamins and acids). Bile is an emulsifier of fats. In addition, it is she who activates the enzymes of the pancreas.

      The following medications are recommended:

      • Plant enzymes or enzymes of animal origin - in the detection of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

      • Phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid that can be taken on an ongoing basis. It is part of the components of bile and cell membranes.

      • In violation of methylation (necessary, in the context of these pathologies, for the formation of phospholipids) - the use of supplements containing donors of the methyl group (S-adenosylmethionine, trimethylglycine, methylcobalamin).


      • In case of violation of the outflow of bile, it is possible for a doctor to consider the use of animal bile (only in the absence of damage to the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract).

      • Ursodeoxycholic acid is a non-toxic bile acid with anti-inflammatory, litholytic effects. It is used in the treatment of cholestasis and gallstone disease.

    3. Malabsorption is already a question for the intestines and the integrity of its epithelial cover. A decrease in the number of villi, on which the process of splitting and then absorption also takes place, also leads to indigestibility of nutrients.

  1. Genetics - in particular, polymorphisms in the genes involved in the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA.

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Mitochondria are furnaces in which fatty acids are oxidized. There are many reasons for their damage. One, perhaps the most common, is the use of antibiotics, which is not surprising, since once upon a time our little power plants were bacteria that successfully partnered with other cells.

    In addition, say, proton pump blockers ("Omez"), used to reduce the production of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of gastritis and stomach ulcers, as well as duodenal ulcers, will also affect mitochondria outside the digestive tract.

    As a rule, disorders in the work of mitochondria will occur in the presence of metabolic syndrome - its diagnosis takes into account body mass index, waist circumference, and the following indicators:

    • Insulin.

    • Glucose.

    • Triglycerides.

    • HDL (high density lipoproteins).

    • LDL (low density lipoproteins).

    • Cholesterol.

    You can also take an analysis for organic acids in the urine - in particular, monitor the level of:

    • Succinate.

    • Aconitata.

    • Fumarate.

    • Citrate.

    • Isocitrate.

    • 2-oxoglutarate.

    In case of disruption of the mitochondria, it is recommended to consider taking the following dietary supplements:

    • L-carnitine - transfers fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix.

    • magnesium.

    • Coenzyme Q10.

    • Alpha lipoic acid.

    • B group vitamins.


  3. Deficiency of vitamins C and E - antioxidants that protect lipids from oxidation by free radicals.

Norms of consumption of omega-3 fatty acids

ISSFAL (International Society for the study of Fatty Acids and Lipids) recommends that adults take at least 500 mg/day of the EPA+DHA combination as a recommendation.


The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Food and Agriculture Organization) gives wider ranges of values, in particular, dividing the population and by age groups:

  • 0-6 months: DHA (0.1-0.18% E, where E is energy).

  • 6-24 months: DHA (10-12 mg/kg body weight).

  • 2-4 years: EPA + DHA (100-150 mg).

  • 4-6 years: EPA + DHA (150-200 mg).

  • 6-10 years: EPA + DHA (200-250 mg).

  • During pregnancy and breastfeeding: 0.3 g/day.

Many studies also note that taking omega-3 PUFAs during pregnancy significantly reduces the risk of preterm birth - in particular, this was noted when adding drugs with them (at a concentration of 2.7 g) from the 20th week. This effect is supposed to be related to their effect on muscle tissue (to which the middle layer of the uterine cavity, the myometrium, belongs) through the regulation of calcium channels.

The American Heart Association advises women with heart disease to eat oily fish at least twice a week, and consider taking capsules containing 850-1000 mg EPA + DHA, and patients with high blood triglyceride levels - 2-4 grams of omega-3 PUFAs per day.

TOP 20 foods high in omega-3

The product's name

EPA g/kg fresh weight

DHA g/kg wet weight

1. Sardine



2. Herring



3. Salmon



4 Rainbow Trout



5. Sockeye salmon



6. Capelin



7. Acne



8. Horse mackerel



9. Perch



10. Pike perch



11. Tilapia



12. Pollock



13. Cod



14. Heck



15. Flounder



16. Lin



17. Pike



18. Bream



19. Crucian



20. Mullet



Excess omega-3 PUFAs

In the realities of the modern world, when, as a rule, omega-6-polyunsaturated fatty acids predominate in the diet, and most patients have problems with the outflow of bile, which are accompanied by a bending of the neck of the gallbladder, worm infestation or stones, it is quite difficult to achieve an excess of omega-3 .

However, like any biologically active compound, omega-3 PUFAs must be taken strictly according to the instructions. Moreover, it must be taken into account that they, although to a much lesser extent, are able to form pro-inflammatory molecules (as in the case of the previously described psoriasis).

In addition, their use in individuals with low platelets should be strictly supervised by nutritionists and physicians, as omega-3 PUFAs can further reduce blood clotting.


Hypovitaminosis - what is it and how does it affect nutrition?

What is hypovitaminosis?

Hypovitaminosis  or  avitaminosis  is a pathological condition that occurs in the body with insufficient intake of one or several vitamins.

The lack of vitamins  can manifest itself through various symptoms. By observing the symptoms, we can most easily determine which vitamins are lacking in our body and take appropriate treatment. As a result of the lack of vitamins, we cannot help but notice the changes that are happening in our body. These are changes that affect parts of the body such as hair, skin, eyes, nails and more.

Sometimes diagnosing hypovitaminosis can be quite a difficult task. Most often, hypovitaminosis is due to the lack of several vitamins in the body. Today, hypovitaminosis mostly affects the elderly and young children.
 In general, the symptoms by which hypovitaminosis can be recognized are low weight, irritability, frequent depression, splitting nails, hair loss, skin problems, impaired vision, etc.

The treatment of hypovitaminosis is adherence to a diet determined by a specialist, which includes fruits, vegetables, cereals, seafood, meat, honey, eggs and dairy products.

Causes of hypovitaminosis:

Hypovitaminosis, also known as vitamin deficiency, occurs when there is a deficiency of vitamins in food or if the vitamins we take are not properly absorbed by the body.  In hypovitaminosis, there is a deficiency of one or several vitamins, and in avitaminosis, there is a complete lack of vitamins in the body. 

In addition to these two reasons, there are other factors that can also be the cause of the occurrence of hypovitaminosis. These are factors such as alcohol dependence, lack of bile, improper nutrition, drug addiction, genetic diseases, intestinal paralysis, surgical interventions of the stomach and intestines, intestinal malabsorption, kidney failure, and others. What we need to know is that, first of all, hypothyvaminosis occurs due to unfavorable living conditions and malnutrition.  
In order to be able to determine whether we suffer from hypovitaminosis, we must first know which vitamins, how they act on our body, what are the symptoms in the absence of certain vitamins and how to get vitamins through food.

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