Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis are serious deviations in the functioning of the body. Very often, we do not notice the absence or significant lack of vitamins in our own body, referring to other diseases.
Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis of vitamin A
Vitamin A (also known as retinol) belongs to fat-soluble vitamins , it is formed when carotene enters our body together with food.
Symptoms of a lack or absence of vitamin A in the body are impaired vision at dusk and in the dark ("chicken blindness"), dry eyes, conjunctivitis, softening of the cornea of the eye and the formation of ulcers, dryness and peeling of the skin, atrophic changes in sweat and sebaceous glands. Very frequent symptoms of hypovitaminosis of vitamin A are susceptibility to skin lesions and infectious diseases of the respiratory, urinary and digestive systems. And in children, vitamin A deficiency manifests itself in loss of appetite, anemia, and growth retardation.
These deviations can be treated in two ways: diet therapy (enrichment of the diet with vitamin A) and medical intervention. In the first case, the liver of marine fish and animals, fish oil, cheese, cream, butter, egg yolk — sources of vitamin A — are introduced into the diet ; as well as carrots, sweet peppers, green onions, parsley, sorrel, lettuce, spinach, black currants, apricots, sea buckthorn and rose hips are sources of beta-carotene. In case of a slight deficiency, vitamin A is prescribed medicinally in the form of pills, in more severe cases - administration of the drug in the form of injections.
Vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D belongs to fat-soluble vitamins . It is formed in our body under the action of UV rays, or comes from food.
In children, the lack of vitamin D in the body is manifested by clinical symptoms of rickets, which begins at 2-3 months, namely: excitement, anxiety, restless sleep, muscle dystonia, increased sweating, slowing of psychomotor development, changes in shape and various distortions of bones, and as well as pathologies of internal organs. In adults, hypovitaminosis of vitamin D causes such symptoms as increased fatigue, muscle weakness, insomnia, burning in the mouth and throat, decreased appetite and weight loss, muscle cramps in the arms and legs, frequent fractures and bone cracks.
To treat the lack of vitamin D through diet therapy , babies are advised to breastfeed exclusively (faster to prevent the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency ), or they are transferred to adapted milk formulas, complementary feeding is started a month earlier than the established term. To treat vitamin D deficiency in adults, fish oil, butter, egg yolk, liver, meat are added to the diet (or the amount is increased).
Also, treatment of hypovitaminosis D involves drug therapy, physiotherapy treatment, massage and physical therapy.
Lack of vitamin E
Vitamin E belongs to fat-soluble vitamins , our body receives it together with food.
Hypovitaminosis E is manifested by the destruction of erythrocytes, deposition of sphingolipids in muscle tissue responsible for cellular recognition, creatineuria (excretion of creatine together with urine), peripheral neuropathies, body instability, loss of balance, impaired sense of movement of arms and legs in space.
During diet therapy for the treatment of vitamin E deficiency, liver, eggs, unrefined vegetable oils, cereals and beans, cereal sprouts, milk, meat are introduced into the diet. Medicines with vitamin E are also prescribed, first for treatment, and then for prevention of the disease.
Avitaminosis of vitamin C
Ascorbic acid belongs to water-soluble vitamins and enters our body with food. Most often, spring vitamin deficiency refers to hypovitaminosis C, since in winter our diet contains few fresh fruits and vegetables.
Symptoms of a lack of vitamin C are a condition of the body called scurvy, which manifests itself in varying degrees of severity in the following ways: general weakness, weight loss, pain in the joints and muscles, hyperemia of the gums, their swelling and bleeding, hemorrhages in the area of the hair follicles of the skin of the legs , anemia, slow healing of wounds and scratches, swelling of the legs, arthritis against the background of hemorrhages inside the joints. Hypovitaminosis of vitamin C in children is manifested by bad breath, anemia, weakness, white coating on the tongue, small hemorrhages on the skin and mucous membranes.
This vitamin deficiency is treated , like the previous ones, through diet therapy and/or medication. In the first case, the diet includes rose hips, sea buckthorn, black currants, tangerines, lemons, apples, cherries, rowanberries, strawberries, cabbage, greens. It is very important to subject vegetables and fruits to as little heat treatment as possible.
Vitamin K deficiency
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin , our body receives it from the outside and synthesizes it in the intestines.
Lack of vitamin K is manifested by nasal, subcutaneous, gastrointestinal bleeding, gum bleeding, and intracranial bleeding in newborns.
During diet therapy , Brussels sprouts and cauliflower, spinach, lettuce, zucchini, and beef liver are added to the diet. Treatment is supplemented with medication.
Avitaminosis of vitamin B1
Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, belongs to water-soluble vitamins .
Symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency are called Beri-Beri disease. Primary symptoms are manifested in the form of headaches, general weakness, rapid fatigue, shortness of breath during exercise. The dry form of the disease is manifested by bilateral paresthesias of the feet, calf cramps, pain in the legs and considerable fatigue when walking, walking with emphasis on the heels, muscle atrophy. The cerebral form of the disease has such manifestations as memory disorders, impaired blood circulation in the brain, encephalopathy, ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of the eye muscles), in severe cases - coma and death. The wet form of the disease is manifested by myocardiostrophy, a violation of peripheral vascular resistance. Manifestations of vitamin deficiency in childrenB1 are rather vague, heart failure, absence or vagueness of deep tendon reflexes, aphonia (loss of voice volume) come to the fore.
To treat B1 vitamin deficiency , the diet is enriched with liver, bread made from coarse flour, legumes, cereals, and yeast. In medical treatment, in addition to B1 drugs, group B vitamin therapy is prescribed.
Avitaminosis of vitamin B6
Vitamin B6 belongs to water-soluble vitamins , our body receives it together with plant and animal food.
Vitamin B6 is manifested by weakness, sluggishness, fatigue, insomnia, irritability, as well as seborrheic dermatosis of the scalp, face and neck skin, stomatitis, peripheral paresthesias, convulsions, anemia in children.
To treat vitamin deficiency by diet therapy, the diet is enriched with beans, cereal grains, bananas, liver, meat, fish, kidneys, and yeast. They are also treated with medical drugs.
Avitaminosis of vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 is water-soluble, our body mainly receives it together with products of animal origin.
Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include weakness, pallor, tachycardia, shortness of breath, tinnitus, paresthesias, muscle atrophy, pathological reflexes, polyneuritis, marked incoordination, anorexia, vitiligo, skin hyperpigmentation, confusion, and depression. Concomitant diseases of vitamin B12 can be hypothyroidism, iron deficiency anemia, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.
Treatment of this condition is prescribed for the rest of your life. The diet includes liver, kidneys, red meat, fish, seafood, cheese, egg yolks, soy. In parallel, drug treatment is prescribed.
Lack of vitamin B9
Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin , enters our body with food, and is also synthesized in the intestines.
Vitamin B9 deficiency is manifested by pale skin, arterial hypotension, tachycardia, anorexia, jaundice and digestive disorders.
Diet therapy consists in enriching the diet with fresh vegetables, liver, kidneys, eggs and cheese. In some cases, drug treatment is used instead of diet therapy.
Vitamin R deficiency
Vitamins of the P group (also known as flavonoids) are water-soluble and are found in plants in the form of glycoside compounds.
Symptoms of vitamin deficiency P are increased permeability of the vascular wall and the development of hemorrhages, as well as hemorrhages on the skin and mucous membranes.
Diet therapy consists in introducing citrus fruits, rose hips, red and black currants, mountain ash, and green tea into the diet. Drug treatment is also prescribed.