The human body constantly needs energy for the stable operation of all systems and organs. Calories for a person are a kind of fuel that provides the body with this energy. The daily rate of calories is understood as the number of calories that the human body needs for vital activities, maintaining the body in a healthy state and in good shape, without accumulating extra kilograms —
The daily rate of calories is understood as the number of calories that the human body needs for vital activities, maintaining the body in a healthy state and in good shape, without accumulating extra kilograms - during one day.
The energy value should correspond to the total energy expenditure of the organism of each person in particular. Also, it is worth paying attention not only to the number of calories , but also to their quality.
The diet should be balanced - the amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fats should be sufficient and proportionate. According to the norms, the share of carbohydrates in the daily diet should be 50% of the total caloric content, and fats and proteins should be 20-30% each.
The human body constantly needs energy for the stable operation of all systems and organs. Calories for a person are a kind of fuel that provides the body with this energy.
The main sources of calories (and therefore energy): proteins, fats and carbohydrates. 1 g of fats contains 9 calories , 1 g of proteins and carbohydrates - 4. Carbohydrates are the main fuel for the body. When their amount in the diet is limited, energy is taken from fats and proteins, which, under conditions of rational nutrition, are spent on other needs of the body. Everyday products usually contain all these components and have their own calorie content. This coefficient is calculated in kilocalories (1 kcal = 1000 cal). According to statistics, the average daily calorie consumption in different countries is as follows (kcal):
Burundi - 1628.
Democratic Republic of the Congo - 1637.
Eritrea - 1646.
Afghanistan - 1755.
Ethiopia - 1803.
Tajikistan - 1927.
Zambia - 1934.
Mozambique - 1939.
Tanzania - 1960.
Haiti - 1978.
Madagascar - 1994.
Cambodia - 2000.
Sierra Leone - 2016.
Nigeria - 2064.
Zimbabwe - 2076.
Iceland - 3240.
Poland - 3370.
Spain - 3410.
Norway - 3480.
Germany - 3490.
France - 3640.
Ireland - 3690.
United States of America - 3770.
Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are the three main components that provide the body with energy to perform its daily functions.
Carbohydrates are the main energy source. They are broken down by the body into glucose, which is fuel for all body cells. Without the right amount of glucose, no body system will work normally. The healthiest sources of carbohydrates are whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables. About 60% of the total number of calories consumed during the day should be carbohydrates.
Protein is a building material for the body. Muscles, organs, nails, hair, etc. — everything consists of protein. Also, protein is indispensable for the functioning of the immune system. About 10-15% of the daily caloric intake should be provided by proteins. It is generally accepted that the norm is to consume 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body weight.
Fats — activate the body's protective function, provide the body with many necessary macronutrients, participate in metabolic processes, etc. Fats that are not immediately used in the body are stored "as a reserve", since, with a shortage of carbohydrates and proteins, they act as fuel for the body, providing it with energy. However, you need to be careful with saturated and trans fats — they increase the risk of heart disease and other problems. "Healthy" fats are found in vegetable oils, nuts, fish, and dairy products. About 25-30% of all calories consumed during the day should be provided by fats, less than 7% of them are saturated.
According to some sources, an adult with a moderately active lifestyle needs 1,800 kcal/day, a person engaged in physical labor needs 5,500. Other sources indicate that the daily rate of calorie consumption is 200 kcal. And according to others - 2605 kcal/day for men and 2079 kcal for women. However, all these data are very generalized. Energy is spent on the main functions of the body, as well as on additional actions and loads (for example, playing sports). After all, the daily calorie intake is affected by various factors, such as: age, level of physical activity, place of residence, figure, etc. Also, the daily rate of calorie consumption is affected by whether the goal is to maintain the current weight, lose weight, or gain additional kilograms.
Men need more calories than women.
For a growing organism , the daily rate of calorie consumption is higher than for an elderly person.
The more active a person's lifestyle is, the more calories he needs.
The daily rate of calories should be calculated according to the desired result: to maintain the current weight, lose or gain kilograms.
Pregnant and lactating women need to consume more calories (about 500 kcal more than usual).
Calorie consumption during physical activity:
Jumping from a springboard, cross-country skiing — 900 kcal/h.
Swimming — 720.
Tennis, football — 600.
Long walk - 360.
Leisurely walking — 90 kcal/h.
During sedentary office work, the body consumes only 42 kcal/hour.
You can calculate the individual daily rate of calorie consumption , taking into account various factors, using the Mifflin-San Geor formula. The formula was developed several years ago, and today it is recognized as the most accurate for calculating calories .
Daily calorie intake for women:
10*weight (kg) + 6.25*height (cm) - 5*age (years) - 161
Daily caloric intake for men:
10*weight (kg) + 6.25*height (cm) - 5*age (years) + 5
We multiply the obtained result by the coefficient of physical activity:
1.2 — no or minimal physical activity;
1,375 — fitness classes 3 times a week;
1.4625 — fitness classes 5 times a week;
1,550 — intense physical activity 5 times a week;
1.6375 — fitness classes every day;
1,725 — daily intensive physical activity or 2 times a day;
1.9 - daily physical activity and physical work.
To ensure the normal functioning of the body, it is necessary to satisfy not only its daily need for calories , but also to supply it with vitamins and minerals .Vitamins
Carotene protects the body from respiratory infections, strengthens teeth and bone tissue, increases reproductive function, and increases the body's overall defense capacity. Due to its powerful antioxidant properties, carotene is used as a functional ingredient in both food products and cosmetology (in the production of sunscreen and antiaging cosmetics).
The daily norm is 6 g.
It is contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): dried apricots - 3.5, figs - 1, dates - 0.3, pine nuts - 0.18, papaya - 0.1.
Vitamin B1 improves the growth of body cells and tissues, metabolism in the brain, participates in the supply of nutrients to nerve cells, and has a positive effect on memory. Vitamin B1 does not accumulate in the tissues, so it is necessary to consume it every day.
The daily rate is 1.2-1.4 g.
Contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): prunes - 0.2, raisins - 0.2, dried apricots - 0.1, dates - 0.07, figs - 0.07, cashews - 2, pistachios - 1.08, pine nut - 0.6, walnut - 0.4, hazelnut - 0.33, almond - 0.25.
Vitamin B2 ensures the preservation of the youth of the skin, the normal growth process, the strengthening of the nail plate and hair, together with other substances, it participates in the exchange of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Vitamin B2 regulates the state of the nervous system, promotes the release of stress hormones.
The daily norm is 1.3 g.
It is contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): raisins - 0.5, prunes - 0.5, dried apricots - 0.2, figs - 0.09, dates - 0.08, pistachios - 1.24, cashews yu — 1, hazelnut — 0.12, walnut — 0.1, pine nut — 0.87, almond — 0.6, papaya — 0.1, pineapple — 0.03.
Vitamin B6 prevents muscle spasms, numbness of the hands, some forms of neuritis of the limbs, promotes the assimilation of fats and proteins, helps in the prevention of skin diseases, and stimulates the work of the nervous system. Neurophysiologists recommend consuming this vitamin to people who often experience nervous stress.
The daily norm is 1.4 g.
Contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): prunes - 2.4, raisins - 0.4, figs - 0.1, almonds - 0.3, dates - 0.01, walnuts - 0.8, hazelnuts — 0.24.
Vitamin C protects against bacterial and viral infections, prevents thrombus formation and exposure to allergens, lowers cholesterol in the blood, and has a positive effect on mood. Vitamin C plays an extremely important role in the emotional sphere of a person.
The daily rate is 50 g.
Contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): figs - 5, dried apricots - 4, prunes - 3, dates - 1.7, almonds - 1.5, walnuts - 0.8, papaya - 71, pineapple - 33 .
Vitamin E slows down the aging of cells, accelerates the healing of burns, cuts and wounds, strengthens the immune system, and supports the functioning of the muscles. The value of vitamin E for cosmetology is invaluable . It stimulates the synthesis of elastin and collagen, prevents skin aging, neutralizes free radicals, prevents the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin, and also stimulates blood microcirculation.
The daily norm is 8 g.
It is contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): pine nuts - 55, hazelnuts - 31.4, almonds - 10.9, walnuts - 23, cashews - 1.1.
Vitamin PP ensures the formation of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in the blood, plays a very important role in metabolism, regulates the level of cholesterol in the blood, and promotes the removal of toxins from the body. Vitamin PP takes part in the regulation of the function of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands, and a person's weight directly depends on the functioning of these endocrine organs.
The daily rate is 14-10 g.
It is contained in the following products (number of mg per 100 g): prunes - 1.5, dates - 0.8, figs - 0.7, almonds - 4, pineapple - 0.6, papaya - 0.1.