The term bodybuilding means body culture. Bodybuilding uses weights, dumbbells, and machines. This is how bodybuilders should eat.
The term bodybuilding means body culture. Bodybuilding uses weights, dumbbells and machines. However, the utterance of this word evokes associations with heavy strength training that has a professional focus (participation in competitions, compliance with a strict nutritional regime, use of doping).
Fitness-bodybuilding means fitness, harmony, physical and mental health through the use of bodybuilding principles and methods in the form of a sport for everyone. Here, in addition to the balanced anaerobic and aerobic load, the hygiene regimen is also included - rational and balanced nutrition, healthy sleep, maintenance of personal hygiene.
Fitness training aims to improve the figure, build muscles, maintain body weight, prevent and treat various diseases, develop motor skills. These days, strength training is gaining more and more popularity for both men and women. Not on last but not least is the fact that training is the only way to eliminate stress - everything else suppresses it. In addition, it has a strong positive emotional charge due to the released hormones of happiness (endorphins and enkephalins).
Under its influence, a person can feel toned, reduce their subcutaneous fat, increase their musculature, improve their harmony and generally improve their quality of life. From everything listed above, we can say that strength training has a powerful motivating character, and this is not insignificant.
Bodybuilding is one of the few sports that can be practiced from infancy to old age. It is also the only sport that talks about anabolism, not just catabolism. Let's now explain the two concepts:
-Anabolism is the synthesis of complex compounds from simple ones with the release of energy.
-Catabolism is the opposite process of anabolism – breaking down complex compounds into simpler ones.
In elderly people, these two processes are equal, complementing each other. In children and adolescents, anabolism mainly prevails, but in old age, catabolism is mainly present. In order to support anabolism, we must give it the necessary fuel. From this, it is clear how important it is to correctly the selected food and nutrients. Nutrients are divided into 2 groups - basic and additional.
The main ones are proteins, carbohydrates and fats, and the additional ones are water, vitamins and mineral salts.
Let's look at them individually:
Proteins are high-molecular organic compounds that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, sulfur and some metals. They are the main building material for living organisms. The human body is made up of about 50,000 proteins. They perform the following functions:
-Plastic - they make up almost all cells and tissues
-Regulatory - it is included in the composition of various enzymes, hormones and biologically active substances.
-Protective- entering into the composition of antibodies, and from there the immunobiological forces of the body.
-Reproduction and heredity also depend on proteins.
- Transport - the two vital proteins enter here - hemoglobin and myoglobin.
-Buffer - maintains the alkaline-acidic balance in the body.
-Energetic - the oxidation of 1 gram of protein yields 4.1 kilocalories.
Regarding the last function, it is important to mention a few things. In a state of rest, the body uses only 4-6% of its energy from proteins. During physical exertion, muscle and liver glycogen decrease. In order for the body to provide 'fuel' for the brain, it begins to form glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, namely from proteins. The process is called gluconeogenesis. But even during physical exertion, the percentage of protein used should not exceed 10%. Otherwise, the body falls into a severe catabolic state.
Proteins are made up of 20 amino acids. They are divided into replaceable, which are 12 in number and irreplaceable, which are 8 in number. Replaceable, as their name suggests, can be synthesized in the body, but irreplaceable must necessarily be taken with food , as they are not synthesized in the human body.
When choosing food, its biological value should be taken into account, namely - what is the ratio of replaceable/irreplaceable proteins.
Proteins are divided into animal and vegetable proteins. Animal proteins have the highest biological value. Foods with the highest biological value are:
These foods contain not only proteins, but also fats and important trace elements.
Proteins of vegetable origin have a significantly low biological value (35-65%), but they should not be neglected, as they also contain useful fats, trace elements, carbohydrates. The products that contain these proteins are beans, lentils, corn, wheat and others.
Since time is sometimes not enough to get the amount we need, nutritional supplements can come to the rescue. Besides being an ideal substitute, they are free from lactose, carbohydrates and fats. In addition, they are tasty, easy to prepare and even cheaper .
Systemic protein malnutrition can have serious consequences for the body - muscle weakness, sexual weakness, collapse of the immune system, etc. Excessive use can lead to excessive strain on the liver and kidneys.
And finally, we should also mention the daily needs of proteins, namely 0.8-1.2 grams per kilogram for non-exercising and 2-2.5 grams per kilogram for exercising.
Carbohydrates are made of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. They perform the following functions:
-Energy - carbohydrates are the main source of energy for both aerobic and anaerobic work. During their aerobic oxidation, they release 38 molecules of ATP, and during anaerobic - 2.
- Plastic - carbohydrates are part of almost all cells.
- Reserve - carbohydrates are stored in the body in the form of glycogen. It is muscle and liver. Its total amount is 350-400 grams.
-Regulatory – They maintain the blood sugar level, give capacity to the Krebs cycle and others.
Carbohydrates are divided into 2 groups:
- simple - this includes monosaccharides and disaccharides. Representatives are glucose, fructose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, galactose.
- complex - starch, cellulose, glycogen.
Starch is a basic nutrient. It is absorbed slowly (2-4 hours) and allows the liver to process it into glycogen. Cellulose creates a feeling of satiety, contains practically no calories and enhances the peristalsis of the intestines. Glucose is absorbed the fastest, for about 10 minutes. Fructose is absorbed more slowly, but it is more easily converted into glycogen. Sucrose (sugar) should be avoided, as it sharply increases blood sugar. The body reacts quickly by releasing insulin from the pancreas, as a result it accumulates as a reserve in the form of fat!
From the above, we can say that complex carbohydrates should be consumed, as they support glycogenogenesis, but also contain fiber, which keeps blood sugar at a normal level (3.5-5.5 mmol/l). Foods rich in these carbohydrates are whole grains, vegetables, fruits.
Insufficient intake of carbohydrates leads to fatigue, emaciation, drowsiness, headache, etc. Excessive use leads to obesity!
Carbohydrates provide about 60% of the daily calorie requirement.
Fats are organic compounds that are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents. They are broken down only in an oxygen environment (aerobic mode of operation).
Fats perform the following functions:
-Energetic - during their oxidation, fats release 8.4-9 kcal.
- Plastic - they are part of cell membranes, nervous tissue, hormones and others.
-Protective – have a thermoregulatory function, support the female reproductive organs.
Fats are saturated, unsaturated, essential.
Saturated are solid, they are contained in animal foods, they are difficult to break down and easily accumulate in the form of fat in landfills.
Unsaturated are liquid and are contained in foods of plant origin. The essential ones are of greatest importance, since they are not synthesized in the human body and must be obtained through food. They participate in the formation of tissue hormones. The foods in which they are contained are linseed and soybean oil, fish and others.
Fats provide 20-30% of energy income.
Fats are the main source of energy during prolonged exercise (marathons), and their share can reach up to 80% of the energy required for the exercise. The more trained the body, the easier it involves fat in oxidation.
In the absence of fat, weight loss, disturbance of kidney functions, skin changes and others are observed. Excessive use can lead to obesity, atherosclerosis, poor self-esteem, reduction of testosterone in men (estradiol in women) and others.
Vitamins are low-molecular compounds that cannot be synthesized in the human body, and their supply is extremely necessary. The ways they can be used are the following:
- through food
-synthesis by intestinal bacteria
-synthesis from other compounds
-tablets, capsules and others.
Vitamins are divided into water-soluble (B group, C) and fat-soluble (A, D, E, K). Water-soluble vitamins, as their name suggests, are soluble in water, but they are quickly removed from the body (2-3 hours) through the urine. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve in fat and are stored in them for about a week. Therefore, in practice, hypervitaminosis from water-soluble vitamins is difficult to obtain, but fat-soluble vitamins can be highly toxic in large doses.
Daily doses depend on age, motor activity, health status and others. The Ministry of Health has determined reference values, but they are those that are on the edge between illness and health. It is interesting that bodybuilders are the first to notice the need for a larger amount of vitamins.
This vitamin is also called aneurin, thiamine or antineurite factor. The largest amount of vitamin B1 is found in yeast, oilseeds, wheat and rice bran, beans, peas, spinach, fruits, walnuts, and also in egg yolk, cow's milk, pork and beef, liver, kidneys and others. It is also synthesized in the large intestine, but in small amounts. The physiological action of vitamin B1 is on the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and water. More precisely, it is part of the enzymes decarboxylase and oxidase - enzymes that break down pyruvic acid - an intermediate product in the exchange of glucose, proteins and fats. With hypo- and avitaminosis, the nervous and muscular systems are the most sensitive. In disorders of the intermediate exchange of carbohydrates, proteins and fats and the accumulation of pyruvic acid in these two systems, inflammatory processes develop that lead to muscle atrophy, paralysis, heart failure, disturbances in peristalsis, secretion and resorption in the digestive system, etc. Recommended daily doses: Men = 1.2 milligrams; Women = 1.1 milligrams. *
B 2 ( riboflamin)
Vitamin B2 is also known as lactoflavin or riboflavin. It is widespread in nature. It is found in large quantities in yeast, the husks of rice and wheat plants, green leafy plants, tomatoes, cabbage, malt, yeast, liver, kidneys, milk, egg yolk, etc. The action of this vitamin is diverse. It enters as a coenzyme of certain enzymes and participates in oxidation-reduction processes in tissues during intracellular respiration. It also plays an important role in the exchange of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, in the chemistry of vision, in maintaining the integrity of mucous membranes, etc. It also affects the growth of the body. That is why hypo- and avitaminosis B2 are observed: growth arrest, inflammation of the cornea of the eye and the mucous membrane of the mouth, wounding of the corners of the mouth. Recommended daily doses: Men = 1, 3 milligrams; Women = 1.1 milligrams. *
Also known as nicotinic acid, niacin and vitamin PP. Best sources are liver, chicken, red meat, tuna and trout, whole grain bread, nuts. This vitamin acts as a coenzyme of the enzymes responsible for releasing energy from food, including in the composition of coenzyme A. Our body produces niacin from the amino acid tryptophan in principle in sufficient quantities. Niacin deficiency causes gout, the first symptom of which is small sores on the skin, and later - a sore tongue, diarrhea, irritability, even depression and mental disorders. Recommended Daily Allowances: Recommended Daily Allowances: Men = 16 milligrams niacin-equivalents (960 milligrams tryptophan); Women = 14 milligrams niacin-equivalents (640 milligrams tryptophan)*.
It is also called pantothenic acid and panthenol. This vitamin is found in a really huge range of foods - for example, almonds, yeast, flour, liver, fish, meat, and is also produced by the bacteria in our intestines. It still plays an unclear role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats - more than 150 reactions, but it is known that it enters the structure of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, which in turn are oxidoreductases. Along with other B vitamins, pantothenic acid is needed to convert food into energy, build red blood cells, bile, and synthesize fats, adrenal steroids, antibodies, acetylcholine, and other neurotransmitters. Pantothenic acid relieves pain from burns, cuts and scrapes, reduces skin inflammation and accelerates wound healing. Recommended daily dose: Men, women = 5 milligrams.
This vitamin is actually a combination of three vitamins - pyridoxol, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. It also has the names pyridoxine and adermin. Vitamin B6 is found in the greatest amount in yeast, wheat and rice bran, wheat germ, corn, legumes, liver, meat, fish, etc. This vitamin, like vitamin B2, also acts as a coenzyme of more than 50 enzymes and participates in the oxidation-reduction processes in tissues during intracellular respiration, but is also a component of a number of other enzymes in the metabolism of fats and proteins, for example, restructuring of some amino acids , in the synthesis of biogenic amines for the central nervous system, in the synthesis of vitamin B3. The human body acquires the required amount on its own, but in rare cases of hypovitaminosis dermatitis, anemia, growth retardation, nervous disorders, etc. Recommended daily dose: Men, Women = 1.5 milligrams. *
The other two names for this vitamin are vitamin H and biotin. Foods rich in biotin are egg yolks, cheese, kidneys, soybeans, sunflower seeds, chocolate, mushrooms, nuts, broccoli, and sweet potatoes. Along with other B vitamins, vitamin B7 helps convert food into energy by transporting carbon dioxide and is needed for the body's synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids and nucleic acids. It is especially important for healthy hair, skin and nails. Hypovitaminosis is rare, but may occur with long-term antibiotic treatment or long-term consumption of raw egg whites, with skin discoloration, growth retardation, and nervous disorder. Recommended daily dose: Men, women = 30 micrograms.
It is also called folic acid or folacin. Natural sources are offal, green leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes and yeast, but it is lost rapidly in products stored at room temperature and during culinary processing. Folacin is a coenzyme needed by the body to accumulate muscle mass and form hemoglobin, because it is involved in the synthesis of the amino acid serine and nucleic acids, in the metabolism of tyrosine, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and vitamin B12. Recommended daily allowances: Men, Women = 400 micrograms of folate equivalents from food (240 micrograms of folic acid obtained from dietary supplements). * Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, folic acid accumulates in the liver and therefore should not be taken daily.
Additional names for this vitamin are cyanocobalamin and anti-anemic vitamin. It contains the trace element cobalt in its molecule. Vitamin B12 is mainly found in animal products - liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, egg yolk, various microorganisms, etc. Its main action is the regulation of hematopoiesis. During the interaction of vitamin B12 (extrinsic factor of Kessel) and a specific protein called gastromucoprotein (intrinsic factor of Kessel), which is released from the pyloric part of the gastric mucosa and favors the resorption of vitamin B12, the so-called is formed in the liver. an anti-anemic factor that stimulates hematopoiesis. Recommended daily dose: Men, women = 2.4 micrograms.
Vitamin C is L-ascorbic acid. Also called antiscorbutic factor. In nature, the sources of this vitamin are numerous. It is found in free and bound form. Of the fruits rich in vitamin C are citrus fruits, rose hips, red currants, strawberries, etc., and of the vegetables - peppers, spinach, nettles, fresh and sauerkraut, parsley, tomatoes, carrots, etc. Of the products of animal origin, the most vitamin C is contained in the liver and adrenal glands. Vitamin C stimulates hematopoiesis, the synthesis of the factor responsible for blood coagulation, the body's resistance to infections, the antitoxic function of the liver. It also affects the functions of the digestive system, the wall of blood vessels, cell membranes, etc. It participates in many biochemical processes related to the transport of electrons, in the breakdown of the amino acids tyrosine and lysine, the synthesis of collagen and glucocorticoid hormones (for example, adrenaline), etc. Its role in maintaining high performance in bodybuilders is significant. It is important to know that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * the synthesis of collagen and glucocorticoid hormones (e.g. adrenaline), etc. Its role in maintaining high performance in bodybuilders is significant. It is important to know that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * the synthesis of collagen and glucocorticoid hormones (e.g. adrenaline), etc. Its role in maintaining high performance in bodybuilders is significant. It is important to know that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * Its role in maintaining high performance in bodybuilders is significant. It is important to know that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * Its role in maintaining high performance in bodybuilders is significant. It is important to know that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * that the optical isomer - D-ascorbic acid not only does not have the same vitamin activity, but is also an anti-vitamin of vitamin C. A typical hypo- and avitaminosis in humans is scurvy. It begins with quick and easy fatigue, ulceration of the gums and bleeding, shaking of the teeth. Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. * Later, profuse capillary hemorrhages appear on the mucous membranes, skin, muscles, and joints. Wounds heal hard and slowly. The body's resistance to infections sharply decreases. Recommended daily dose: Men = 80 milligrams; Women = 70 milligrams; Smokers should add 35 milligrams to these amounts. *
Vitamin A is also called retinol, growth vitamin and anti-infection vitamin. It is known under several forms (vitamers) - A1, A2 and A3. In humans, the A1 form predominates, while in fish - A2. Vitamin A1 is about twice as active as A2. The source of vitamin A formation in the body is the dye substance beta-carotene (provitamin A), which is synthesized by many plants. One molecule of beta-carotene is degraded under the action of the enzyme carotenase up to two molecules of vitamin A. Vitamin A is found in particularly large quantities in fish liver oils (especially mackerel), liver, roe, milk, cow butter, egg yolk, kidneys, etc. Many vegetable oils are rich in beta-carotene , some vegetables such as carrots, tomatoes, peppers, spinach, parsley, etc., as well as fruits such as apples, apricots, melons, peaches, etc. The digestibility of beta-carotene increases many times if the culinary processing is with a large amount of fat, but in the absence of oxygen (frying, stewing). Vitamin A in the form of aldehyde participates as an active group of the visual pigment rhodopsin in the chemistry of vision. In addition, it is needed for the normal epithelization of the cornea and conjunctiva, the skin, the digestive system, the bronchi, the reproductive system, etc. It affects the growth of bones and teeth. It participates in the synthesis of sex hormones and in the construction of the cell membrane, supports the functioning of the adrenal glands. Hypo- and avitaminosis A occur with hen's blindness, drying and ulceration of the cornea of the eye with subsequent inflammation of the entire eye. In addition, growth retardation, disturbances in bone formation and a decrease in body mass are observed. Desiccation is also often observed,
This vitamin is also called calciferol or anti-rickets vitamin. Several D vitamins are known (from D1 to D7). Only vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and D2 (ergocalciferol) are found in nature. The real anti-rickets vitamin is cholecalciferol. Ergocalciferol originates from the substance ergosterol, which is an inactive form of vitamin D and is found in cereal plants. Ergosterol is taken with food, deposited under the skin and converted to ergocalciferol under the influence of ultraviolet rays from sunlight. Vitamin D is very rare in nature. As an active vitamin, it is found exclusively in products of animal origin. It is found in particularly large quantities in fish liver oils, liver, animal fats, cow oil, egg yolk and as provitamin D or ergosterol. The physiological effect of vitamin D is related to the regulation of calcium and phosphorus exchange in all its units. In the bones, vitamin D ensures the deposition of both calcium and phosphate ions. Thus, it participates in the ossification of bones and dentine. This action of his is opposite to the hormone parathormone. However, in order to have an effect on the bones, vitamin D also needs the presence of parathormone. Vitamin D primarily plays a role in the resorption of calcium and inorganic phosphates in the small intestine. When it affects the surface of the intestinal mucosa, a specific protein is formed, which ensures the binding and active transfer of calcium through the walls of the small intestine. This protein is called calcium binding protein (Calcium binding protein). In phosphorus metabolism, vitamin D affects the reabsorption of phosphate ions in the kidneys, by strengthening it. This effect of his is also opposite to the action of the parathormone. Protects the body from excessive losses of amino acids and phosphorus through the urine. With a lack of vitamin D in children, the disease rickets develops, which occurs with retention of ossification and tooth eruption, demineralization of bones, swelling of cartilage, softening and deformation of bones. bodily changes are due precisely to the disturbed exchange of calcium-phosphate salts. In addition, growth lags behind, muscles are limp and relaxed, frequent and profuse sweating, lack of appetite, anemia, etc. appear. The recommended daily doses are 5 micrograms. which occurs with retention of ossification and tooth eruption, demineralization of bones, swelling of cartilages, softening and deformation of bones. These bodily changes are due precisely to the disturbed exchange of calcium-phosphate salts. In addition, growth lags behind, muscles are limp and relaxed, frequent and profuse sweating, lack of appetite, anemia, etc. appear. The recommended daily doses are 5 micrograms. which occurs with retention of ossification and tooth eruption, demineralization of bones, swelling of cartilages, softening and deformation of bones. These bodily changes are due precisely to the disturbed exchange of calcium-phosphate salts. In addition, growth lags behind, muscles are limp and relaxed, frequent and profuse sweating, lack of appetite, anemia, etc. appear. The recommended daily doses are 5 micrograms.Vitamin E
Vitamin E occurs in 7 forms, generally called tocopherols. The most active of them is alpha-tocopherol. It is also called anti-fertility vitamin or anti-sterility factor. Vitamin E is widely distributed in plants, seeds, leaves, especially in wheat and rye germ, many vegetables, rose hips, vegetable oils (especially peanut), fruits and in muscles, pancreas, liver liver. The physiological effect of vitamin E is related to the normal course of pregnancy and stimulation of the formation of gonadotropic hormones. The exact mechanism of action is not known. Some data show that vitamin E thwarts the destructive action of molecular oxygen,
Vitamin K is also called phylloquinone and antihemorrhagic vitamin. It is found in two vitamins - K1 and K2. Sources of vitamin K1 are the green parts of alfalfa, cabbage, spinach, nettles, strawberries, tomatoes, etc., and of vitamin K2 - eggs, milk, liver, etc. Vitamin K1 is also synthesized by intestinal microorganisms. Vitamin K is involved in the process of blood clotting. More precisely, in the presence of vitamin K, the proteins prothrombin and proconvertin are formed, which play a major role in stopping bleeding. Hypovitaminosis K occurs with delayed blood clotting in case of injury and easier formation of subcutaneous and internal bleeding as a result of injury. The recommended daily doses are 79 micrograms of phylloquinone for men and 59 for women.
Trace elements are minerals that are found in small, microscopic amounts in the body, without which, however, its health is subjected to enormous tests. The original trace elements are: cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfur and zinc. I put sulfur under the macronutrients because, according to many modern researchers, it plays a key role in the metabolism of a person who does sports.
Boron, silicon (silicon) and vanadium are considered important for overall (holistic and sports) nutrition in modern man, but have not yet been accepted into the micronutrient family.
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The body needs trace amounts of boron to maintain bone health and muscle growth because it promotes the formation of natural steroid molecules. The metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium is related to the metabolism of boron, therefore its deficiency can disrupt the exchange of macroelements. Boron stimulates the brain by improving its ability to draw energy from fats and sugars.Sources:
You can get boron from the following foods: leafy greens, nuts, cereals, carrots, apples, pears and grapes.Recommended daily dose*:
Men: 2 to 3 mg/day
Women: 2 to 3 mg/day
Vanadium is necessary for cell metabolism and the formation of bones and teeth. It plays a role in the growth and reproduction of the body. It has been shown to suppress cholesterol synthesis and to improve insulin utilization and thus improve glucose tolerance. Vanadium is not easily absorbed by the body. Vanadium needs in athletes are elevated.Sources:
Vanadium is found in meat, fish, vegetable oils, some types of legumes, whole grains, fennel, olives, and radishes.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 1.8 mg/day;
Women: 1.8 mg/day.
Germanium improves the course of oxidative processes in cells. It participates in suppressing pain and helps expel toxins and poisons from the body. It is believed to improve the activity of the immune system. Like hemoglobin, it supports the enrichment of tissues with oxygen.Sources:
Germanium is contained in all organic matter, both of animal and plant origin. The highest concentration of germanium is found in: broccoli, celery, garlic, milk, onion, tomato juice, sauerkraut.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 150 mg/day;
Women: 150 mg/day.
The most important function of iron in the body is its participation in the structure of oxygen carrier proteins: hemoglobin and myoglobin. Compared to other minerals, iron has the highest content in the blood. It is necessary for the composition of many enzymes and is important for the growth of the organism. Iron is important for the normal functioning of the immune system and in the production of energy.Sources:
Iron is found in eggs, fish, liver, meat, poultry, green leafy vegetables and whole grains.Recommended daily dose:
14 to 18 years, 11 mg/day;
18 to 70 years, 8 mg/day;
14 to 18 years - 15 mg/day;
18 to 50 years - 18 mg/day;
50 and older - 8 mg/day.
Although necessary in trace amounts, iodine is needed for the metabolism of excess fat. It is an important factor for the physical and mental development of a person. It is necessary to maintain the normal state of the thyroid gland. A lack of iodine can suppress thyroid hormone production, which is linked to a host of negative health effects.Sources:
Rich in iodine are: iodized salt, seafood, saltwater fish, asparagus, garlic, sea salt, sesame seeds, etc.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 150 mcg (micrograms)./day;
Women: 150 mcg (micrograms)./day.
Trace amounts of manganese are necessary for the metabolism of proteins and fats, for the normal functions of the immune and nervous systems, and for the regulation of blood glucose. Manganese is involved in energy-generating processes in the body. In addition, it is needed for bone growth and health, as well as for the reproductive system. It participates in the formation of cartilage tissue and synovial fluid in the joints. This trace element is necessary for the utilization of vitamins B1 and E. It is a key element in the production of the enzymes necessary for the oxidation of fats and the exchange of purines. An example of this is the role of manganese in the production of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.Sources:
You can get the most manganese by eating whole grains, seeds, nuts, seafood, and last but not least, avocados.Recommended daily dose:
14 to 18 years, 2.2 mg/day;
18 to 70 years at 2.3 mg/day;
14 to 18 years - 1.6 mg/day;
18 to 50 years - 1.8 mg/day.
Among its many functions, copper contributes to the formation of hemoglobin, red blood cells and bone tissue. In the body, the mineral maintains the necessary balance with the amounts of zinc and vitamin C, in the formation of the protein elastin, which gives elasticity to the skin. Copper is also involved in the processes of: energy production, hair coloring, wound healing, skin coloring and in imparting the sense of taste. It is also necessary to maintain the health of joints and nerve cells.Sources:
Found in: mushrooms, nuts, seafood, broccoli, avocado, beans, beets, oats, lentils, liver, oranges, raisins, salmon, soy and green leafy vegetables.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 0.9 mg/day (0.89 mg/day for adolescents);
Women: 0.9 mg/day (0.89 mg/day for adolescents).
Although required in minimal amounts, the mineral is indispensable for nitrogen metabolism. It participates in the final stage of the conversion of purines into uric acid. Molybdenum contributes to the normal functioning of nerve cells and is a component of the metabolic enzyme xanthine oxidase. You can find molybdenum in the liver, bones and kidneys of humans. The trace element supports bone growth and strengthens teeth.Sources:
You can get molybdenum by eating grains, legumes, peas, and dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, sorrel, etc.).Recommended daily dose:
Men: 45 mcg./day (43 mcg./day for adolescents);
Women: 45 mcg./day (43 mcg./day for adolescents).
The most important function of selenium is its participation in the composition of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which suppresses the oxidation of fats. This enzyme is vital and works in sync with vitamin E. The two substances work synergistically (mutually reinforcing, together) to produce antibodies and help maintain good heart and liver health. Selenium is necessary for the proper functioning of the pancreas and for tissue elasticity. It protects the immune system by preventing the formation of free radicals that damage healthy tissues.Sources:
Selenium is contained in grain products according to its level in the soil where they were grown. It accumulates in the meat and liver of animals and birds fed on selenium-rich grain feed. The same applies to secondary animal products: milk and eggs. You can also get selenium from: seafood, garlic, onions, seaweed, brewer's yeast, broccoli and brown rice.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 55 mcg. (micrograms)/day;
Women: 55 mcg. (micrograms)/day.
Silicon is an extremely widespread element on the planet. It is surpassed only by oxygen in distribution. In the human body, however, it is a micro participant. It is necessary for the formation of collagen for connective tissue and bones, to maintain the normal condition of hair, nails and skin. It is needed for the absorption of calcium during growth in childhood and adolescence. It plays an important role in maintaining the elasticity of the arteries, therefore it is used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Silicon neutralizes the effect of aluminum on the body, it is used in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis. It inhibits aging and stimulates the immune system. The level of silicon in the body decreases with age, so older people need higher doses.Sources:
You can get silicon from alfalfa sprouts, brown rice, bell peppers, green olives, soybeans, whole grains, and green leafy vegetables.Recommended daily dose:
There is no consensus on whether silicon is an indispensable mineral for humans or not. There is no established daily dose. Recommendations vary widely between different health organizations, so I've written the lowest recommended value below.
Men: 10 to 40 mg/day;
Women: 10 to 40 mg/day.
Because of its involvement in glucose metabolism, chromium is also called the glucose-tolerant factor. This essential mineral maintains stable blood glucose levels and improves insulin action. It is necessary for the production of energy in the body, it is vital for the synthesis of cholesterol, proteins and fats.Sources:
You can find chromium in the following food sources: brewer's yeast, brown rice, cheese, meat, whole grains, liver, eggs, mushrooms, algae, and more.Recommended daily dose:
14 to 50 years at 35 mcg./day;
50 years and older 30 mcg./day.
14 to 18 years at 24 mcg./day;
19 years to 50 years 25 mcg./day;
50 years and older at 20 mcg./day.
This indispensable mineral is important for the growth of the reproductive organs and the functions of the prostate gland. Regulates the activity of sebaceous glands and supports the prevention of acne. It is necessary for protein synthesis, incl. and the skin protein collagen. It supports the healing of wounds and overall - the functions of the immune system. Zinc improves taste and smell. It also protects the liver from damage and participates in the formation of bone tissue. Zinc is a component of insulin as well as a large number of vital enzymes, including the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. The mineral suppresses the formation of free radicals. Zinc is important for maintaining a normal concentration of vitamin E in the blood and for increasing the absorption of vitamin A. To maintain good health, it is desirable to observe a ratio of 1:
If you want to get zinc from food, focus on lean foods and food groups: fish, seaweed, legumes, meats, liver, poultry, seafood, whole grains, etc.Recommended daily dose:
14 years and older 11 mg/day.
14 to 18 years, 9 mg/day;
19 years and older 8 mg/day.
It is important for the correct heart rhythm and the functioning of the nervous system. It helps in the proper shortening of the muscles and, together with sodium, controls the water balance in the body. It is also important for the course of many chemical reactions in the cells, supports the transmission of electrochemical nerve impulses. Keeps blood pressure stable. Regulates the transport of chemicals across cell membranes. It is believed that its function to control the transfer of substances through cell membranes weakens with age and is the cause of circulatory disorders. The latter leads to senile drowsiness and general weakness. Together with magnesium, potassium prevents the formation of calcium-oxalate type kidney stones. Potassium is necessary for hormone secretion.Sources:
Food sources of potassium are: dairy products, meat, fish, legumes, poultry, fruits, vegetables, whole grains.Recommended daily dose*:
Men: 4700 mg/day
Women: 4700 mg/day
Calcium is vital for forming healthy bones, teeth and gums. It is also important for the proper functioning of the heart and the transmission of nerve impulses. It lowers the cholesterol level in the body and thus supports heart health. It is necessary for the growth and activity of muscles and for the prevention of muscle cramps. Increases growth rate and increases and maintains bone density in children, adolescents and osteoporotic adults. This mineral is essential for blood clotting. Lowers blood pressure and prevents bone loss. Calcium is involved in the supply of energy and the synthesis of DNA and RNA. It is involved in the activation of certain enzymes, for example lipase, which activates the breakdown of fats so that they can be used by the body. Supports the normal permeability of cell membranes,Sources:
Milk and milk products, seafood and green leafy vegetables contain calcium.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 1000 mg/day (1300 mg for youth)
Women: 1000 mg/day (1300 mg for girls)
Magnesium is a vital catalyst of enzyme activity and more specifically of the activity of enzymes involved in energy production. It helps the absorption of potassium and calcium in the body. It is necessary to protect soft tissues from calcification. It is important to protect the inside of the arteries from stress due to sudden changes in blood pressure. A similar thing happens during a high-intensity burst during exercise. Sprinting also falls into this category of cardiovascular stress generators. It supports the formation of bone tissue and plays an important role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and minerals.Sources:
The richest in magnesium are: dairy foods, fish, meat and seafood.Recommended daily dose:
14-18 years - 410 mg/day;
18-30 years - 400 mg/day;
31 years and older - 420 mg/day.
14-18 years - 360 mg/day;
18-30 years - 310 mg/day;
31 years and older - 320 mg/day.
The macronutrient sodium is necessary to maintain the balance between the acidity and the amount of water in the blood, for the proper functions of the stomach, nerves and muscles.Sources:
Almost every food contains some amount of sodium. Sodium deficiency occurs mainly in diseases related to dehydration and/or when taking diuretics.Recommended daily dose:
up to 51 years - 1500 mg/day;
over 51 years old - 1300 mg./day.
up to 51 years - 1500 mg/day;
over 51 years old - 1300 mg./day.
Phosphorus is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain, kidneys and contraction of the heart muscle. It is also important for cell growth, formation and maintenance of bone and tooth health. Participates in maintaining a normal heart rhythm. Other important functions of phosphorus are to help convert nutrients into energy and to make full use of vitamins.Sources:
In addition to being found in most foods, phosphorus has a strong presence in carbonated soft drinks. You can get phosphorus from dairy products, eggs, legumes, meat, poultry, dried fruit, brewer's yeast, and more.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 700 mg/day (1250 mg/day for youth);
Women: 700 mg/day (1250 mg/day for girls).
Chlorine is a macronutrient that our bodies need to successfully convert nutrients into energy. In addition, chlorine supports the acid-base balance in the blood and the body's fluid environment. It participates in the regulation of some processes taking place in the brain. The level of chlorine in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys.Sources:
Chlorine is a macronutrient whose deficiency is rarely observed because it is contained in almost every food. You can get it from drinking water, table salt. Foods containing potassium and sodium usually also contain chlorine.Recommended daily dose:
Men: 2300 mg/day (after 51 years of age - 2000 mg/day);
Women: 2300 mg/day (after 51 years of age - 2000 mg/day).
Sulfur is not a macronutrient. For the non-athletic person, sulfur is a trace element. However, athletes should view it as an important part of their portion of life-sustaining minerals. The reason: sulfur participates in the construction of disulfide bridges in the protein chains of a number of proteins important for cells: shortening, signaling, enzymes, etc. The metabolism of a sports person is associated with an increased loss and constant building of proteins, therefore sulfur is important for the smooth progress of muscle growth. Sulfur supports oxidation processes, stimulates the secretion of bile and protects against the action of toxic substances. Its protective effect against radiation and numerous environmental pollutants makes it one of the most important anti-aging minerals.
You can get sulfur by eating Brussels sprouts, ripe dried beans, bean sprouts, kale, eggs, fish, garlic, meat, etc.Recommended daily dose:
There is no recommended daily intake of sulfur. Doses depend on the substance that is the supplier of sulfur to the body.
The human body is made up of 60-65% water. The balance in the body is also extremely important for maintaining body temperature, metabolism, transport of all compounds in the body, including the elimination of toxins. There is no universal way to determine the daily requirement - it depends on weight, activity level, physical condition and many other factors. It is believed that the minimum amount is 2 liters per day. If you sweat profusely and/or live in a warm, humid place, the need may more than double. When you exercise, your muscles work and generate heat. The more intensely you exercise, the more heat you will produce. You get rid of this unwanted heat mostly through sweat, but also through frequent breathing, which evaporates quite a bit of water.
We often think that the cause is overtiredness or insufficient sleep, and although these are accompanying factors, the main one is dehydration. It reduces the body's ability to cool itself and carry oxygen to the muscles, causing fatigue much earlier than normal. Strength also falls in proportion to fluid loss, as muscles are mostly water - about 75%. With a loss of even 2% of water in the body, physical strength can drop to 15-20%. When you reach a state of dehydration, our body takes precautions, especially against overheating. Your body will get it from its own stores, mostly your blood. As a result, it thickens and it becomes more difficult for the heart to pump it through the circulatory system, blood stagnates in some parts, over time the risk of high blood pressure increases, high cholesterol and heart disease. Recent research has linked reduced water intake to chronic headaches, heartburn and arthritis.
To avoid unpleasant moments in the gym related to dehydration, you should always:
Prepare for training by drinking enough fluids beforehand. If it is in the afternoon, it is best to drink the minimum daily amount - 2 liters
To drink liquids during the training itself, whatever it is
The first thing we need to restore after a workout is water
If we are exercising hard, plain water is not always the best choice for rehydration. The so-called "isotonic drinks" will have a better effect. They contain about 6-7% carbohydrates and electrolytes in such a proportion that they pass into the blood more easily than pure water, because they have a pressure close to that of the blood.
If it happens to you that you wake up swollen and puffy, and yesterday's shoes do not fit you, then you have retained water. This could indicate kidney problems, but it could also be that you're simply overdoing the salt (which is relatively easy, given most ready-to-eat foods). In this case, you need to drink more water to flush out the accumulated amount and it is best to get distilled or spring instead of mineral.
The annual training cycle is divided into a preparatory, competitive and transitional period. The preparatory period takes up about 70%, the competitive period about 25%, and the transitional period - 5%. For elite bodybuilders, it mainly depends on the competition calendar. For fitness bodybuilders, however, it depends on the climatic conditions .It is important to note that there is no transition period for fitness bodybuilders.
The main goal in the pre-training period is muscle hypertrophy. This is achieved not only through a quality training program, but also with an increase in caloric intake. From the above, we can underline the increased proportion of proteins that play the plastic function of muscles, and of carbohydrates, which are the main source of energy. Naturally, it is also important to emphasize that we need an increased amount of testosterone. Its secretion would be impossible without cholesterol and the mineral zinc. Cholesterol is contained in meat, and through it we also import a necessary amount of protein and important mineral salts. In addition, testosterone also maintains a low level of fat in the body.
The majority of carbohydrates should be complex. They should provide about 60% of the daily energy intake. Good sources are rice, potatoes, vegetables, fruits.
Meals should be every 2-3 hours and contain 30-50 grams of protein and 70-100 grams of carbohydrates. Frequent meals, on the other hand, speed up the metabolism and allow better utilization of nutrients. Proteins should come from meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, as they have the highest biological value. Fats are about 20% of the energy income. It is good to import them mainly through meat, vegetable oils and to avoid refined oils (margarine and others).
For fitness bodybuilders, breakfast can include muesli, milk, eggs, whole grain bread, fruit. Lunch should include meat, rice or potatoes, vegetables. Dinner - meat, vegetables, eggs, up to 400 ml of red wine. It is good to add 2 intermediate meals, which can be fruit and/or protein with low-fat milk. Before training, it is important to give the necessary fuel. It can be amino acids (about an hour before training). It is not appropriate to use carbohydrates here, because they cause the release of insulin, and it blocks the growth hormone (somatotropin). After training, the meal must include carbohydrates and protein. Carbohydrates must be one gram per kilogram, and proteins 20-30 grams in total. Before going to bed, it is good to add slow protein (casein) in order to maintain anabolism throughout the night.
The goal during the competition period is to reduce fat while preserving muscle mass as much as possible. Here there is a negative energy balance, which is at the expense of fats and carbohydrates. Suitable foods are chicken, fish, egg whites, protein shakes. Carbohydrates are complex. Fats are from vegetable oils. Fatty meats and simple carbohydrates are avoided. Simple carbohydrates are good only after training. Before training, other than amino acids, fat burners-lipotropic and/or thermogenic can be used.
This period exists only for bodybuilders. A more 'relaxed' diet can be allowed here. Weight training is 2-3 times a week. Aerobics should be emphasized. The aim is to maintain an intermediate level between the preparation and competition period.
Immediately after getting up (8 hours) - 1 banana, 100 grams of grapefruit, 35 grams of protein.
10:00 – 100 grams of rice, 200 grams of chicken, 12 grams of amino acids.
12:00 – No - explode (nitrogen booster).
14:00 – 40 grams of protein, 1 banana.
15:00 – 300 grams of green salad, 150 grams of potatoes, 200 grams of beef stew.
18:00 – 40 grams of protein, 1 apple.
20:00 – 8 egg whites, 2 yolks, 300 grams of green salad, 200 grams of tomatoes, 100 grams of chicken fillet, 30 ml of olive oil, 50 grams of cottage cheese.
22:30 – a bucket of skimmed yogurt, 30 grams of casein.
The total intake of carbohydrates for the day is 268 grams. Proteins are 309 grams. Fats are 47 grams. Water for the whole day is 6 liters spread over 15-20 minutes. Carbohydrates are relatively few, as Georgios easily accumulates fat.
After getting up (7 hours) – 100 grams of grapefruit, 1.5 grams of l-carnitine
8:00 – training.
10:00 – 40 grams of protein.
11:00 – 150 grams of muesli.
13:00 – 300 grams of green salad, 250 grams of fish.
15:00 – 50 grams of potatoes, 200 grams of beef stew.
17:00 – 40 grams of protein, 1 apple.
18:00 – l-carnitine, training.
20:00 – 30 grams of protein.
22:00 – 200 grams of salad, 300 grams of low-fat cottage cheese.
2:00 – 8 proteins.
Carbohydrates are 150 grams. Proteins are 269. Fats are 57 grams. Water is 9 liters, and the last 5 days are distilled, and the last 12 hours before the competition, nothing is drunk.
The diet is quite 'free'. Weight training is 2 times a week (BIA), swimming 3 times a week and 2 times 30 minutes of running.