Pickling is one of the oldest, time-tested methods of food preservation. Its effectiveness lies in the effect of acid, which at a certain concentration does not allow the development of mold and bacteria that lead to product spoilage. Housewives and cooks value this category of products due to its long shelf life. Actually, it is high conservation
Pickling is one of the oldest, time-tested methods of food preservation . Its effectiveness lies in the action of acid, which at a certain concentration does not allow mold and bacteria to develop, which lead to product spoilage .
It is hard to imagine a winter table without pickled products .
Housewives and cooks appreciate this category of products due to its long shelf life. Actually, it is precisely the high conservation properties that brought pickling such popularity. And only later, gourmets and just lovers of salty and sour tastes appreciated marinated snacks.
Pickling developed in the culinary traditions of many peoples as a method of preservation, very close to fermentation.
When products are fermented , the microorganisms that live in them consume sugars and release a large amount of acids. As a result, when the concentration of these acids reaches a certain level, the bacteria themselves die. Including putrefactive microorganisms that lead to spoilage of the product . Thanks to this process, fermented foods can be stored for a long time.
Pickling is, in fact, a similar process, only acids are not formed by bacteria, but by the person himself in the form of special brines and marinades.
As a result, pickled products become an unsuitable environment for the life of bacteria and acquire the ability to be stored for a long time without spoilage.
Pickled products preserve the taste and properties of products better than fermented ones . This is due to the fact that they store all the sugars available in fresh products . In addition, the pickling time is shorter than the pickling time.
Pickled foods are more difficult to digest because they contain artificially added acetic acid or some oils. While lactic acid, formed by bacteria, is more favorable for the stomach.
It is obvious that pickled products are stored much longer than fresh products, since there are no microorganisms that cause spoilage.
Pickling allows you to achieve the most diverse tastes and shades of aromas due to interesting combinations of spices, sugars and salts in the marinade.
It is the last property that has ensured such popularity of pickled products among consumers.
In principle, it is almost impossible to find two absolutely identical brines or marinades, even with the same recipe. Each cook will still add, at a minimum, a little more/less sugar or salt, and at most, an additional spice or greens — which will already slightly change the taste of the product .
Vegetables are most often marinated . In the largest possible volumes. Indeed, in mid-late summer, the rush for pickling the gifts of the garden allows the trade in vinegar, spices, lids and jars to flourish as well.
Cucumbers , tomatoes, sweet peppers and cabbage are the most popular vegetables for pickling , regardless of location. And, also, onions, which are rarely marinated by themselves, but are a frequent component of marinades for other vegetables .
Most often, vegetables are marinated in glass jars. Rarely - in wooden dishes, and even less often - in plastic containers.
Meat and fish are marinated less often and for more specific and narrow purposes. Stew is known to everyone, and it is also a product of pickling . As well as barbecue, which is marinated not in order to preserve it, but in order to give it additional softness, taste and aroma.
Pickling can be divided into 3 main categories:
With a solution of table salt (the solution kills the life cycle of microorganisms).
With the use of sugar as part of the marinade (topping).
Pickling with the use of vegetable oils.
The quality of pickling directly affects the taste and shelf life of products . Weak acidity under certain conditions does not prevent the development of mold, yeast and bacteria. As a result, the addition of table salt, pasteurization or storage of the product at a low (not higher than 4-5°C) temperature without access to fresh air in a closed container is used to store products .Preparation for pickling
To prepare products for pickling , they are sorted by size and quality, cleaned and cut. Then the products are marinated fresh (some fruits and berries) or pre-boiled (blanched), placed in a glass container and poured with marinade cooked with the addition of sugar, salt, and spices.
Marinating meat and fish
Acid during pickling is used to soften the meat and prevents the development of bacteria in it. Usually, lemon juice, dry wine, fruit juices are used.
Vegetable oil during marinating protects meat and fish from the action of acid, and the aromas of various spices dissolve well in fats. You can use any vegetable oil, for example, olive. It is better if the oil does not have its own taste, so as not to interrupt the taste of spices and meat. Also, the oil prevents the meat from drying out during further cooking.
Spices and spices during pickling are used for additional flavoring of products that do not have their own pronounced taste, for example, pork or chicken.
Marinade filling for vegetables is prepared from a solution of salt, sugar, spices and vinegar. Vinegar in combination with various spices and sugar gives the marinade a pleasant sour-sweet taste. Marinades, depending on the amount of vinegar, can be divided into sour, sweet-sour and spicy.
Sour and sweet-sour marinades require mandatory sterilization, while spicy ones do not need to be sterilized, as they will not spoil anyway due to their high content of vinegar. You can pickle one type of vegetables in one jar - tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, beets, etc., or a mixture of vegetables .
Pickled vegetables are a great snack in winter . Also, they can be used to prepare various salads and vinaigrettes, as a side dish for meat dishes.
The best taste comes from products marinated in wooden barrels (beech or oak). However, at home, glass jars are most often used for pickling .
Containers for pickling must first be thoroughly washed and steamed. After that, you can put prepared vegetables in it and fill them with marinade.
In the process of pickling , the weight of the products decreases by approximately 10% from the initial weight. Vinegar, used in pickling , largely prevents spoilage of vegetables . But sugar and nutrients, which are also included in pickling , are a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms, in particular, mold. For this reason, all pickled vegetables should be stored in a cool, dark place. Usually, vegetables are marinated for 1.5-2 months. The higher the temperature, the faster the process, but the greater the risk of mold.
Before marinating, vegetables must be prepared.
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Variety of vegetables PreparationCucumbersRemove the stalks, cut the large ones into circles.TomatoesRemove the stalks, cut in half if necessary.Sweet pepperClean from seeds and stalks, cut in half or into 4 parts, blanch for 1 minute in boiling water.White and red cabbageClean from the upper contaminated or green leaves, remove cob, cut You can avoid blanching if you add a little salt to the cabbage and keep it for 2 hours. Cauliflower Clean the leaves, divide the head into florets and blanch in boiling water with the addition of citric acid and salt. If necessary, you can keep cabbage in cold water for several hours before placing it in a container, but not longer - otherwise it will darken. Peel carrots, blanch for 2-4 minutes, cut into any pieces. Beets Boil in boiling water for 40-50 minutes, peel, rinse with cold water,