"Where there is no medical nutrition, there is no rational treatment." - M. I. Pevzner. Therapeutic nutrition is a reliable means of preventing the exacerbation of chronic diseases, an important component of rehabilitation programs, and a means of preventing the transition of the disease into a chronic form. Also known as diet therapy. It represents an organized food system based on
Therapeutic nutrition, also known as diet therapy, is a scientifically based system of food organization, which consists in the selective use of individual foods and their combinations for therapeutic purposes. Therapeutic nutrition is one of the most important and, as practice shows, a highly effective therapeutic factor that has a versatile therapeutic effect. Diet therapy should be a mandatory component of complex treatment of patients, it should be used for all diseases. Quite often, therapeutic nutrition gives good results in cases where other methods are ineffective. Also, diet therapyis a reliable means of preventing the exacerbation of chronic diseases, an important component of rehabilitation programs, a means of preventing the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
The effectiveness of therapeutic nutrition for a particular disease is determined by such factors as: quantitative and qualitative proportions of food products and nutrients, energy value of the diet, physical properties of food, therapeutic qualities of individual products, diet. Sufficient effectiveness of diet therapy can be achieved only due to the maximum balance of the main nutrients in the diet, as well as taking into account the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease and the state of the body's enzymatic systems. In the basis of medical nutritionare the principles of balanced nutrition, which takes into account the physiological needs of a healthy body in energy and nutrients, depending on gender, age, type of activity and other characteristics. At the same time, corrections are made to the patient's diet, in accordance with the features, mechanisms of progression and development, the stage of the disease, as well as the nature of metabolism. Means of diet therapy are provided:
When using medical nutrition , you need to take into account many factors, such as: the choice of products for the diet, the peculiarities of their chemical composition, the quantitative proportions of individual products and nutrients, methods of their culinary processing, the degree of mechanical grinding, the mode of eating, the caloric content of the diet, etc. Otherwise, diet therapy can only deepen the condition of the disease and render ineffective other means of treatment. Modern principles of medical nutrition provide:
Therapeutic nutrition can be the only method of treatment (for example, in the case of hereditary disorders of the body's assimilation of certain products and nutrients) or one of the main methods (diseases of the kidneys, digestive organs, obesity, diabetes). Also, diet therapy is used as a background to strengthen the effect of other types of treatment and prevent the progression and complications of the disease.
Diet therapy should provide the body of a sick person with the required amount of energy. When determining the caloric content of the dietary ration, in addition to age and gender, it is necessary to take into account such factors as: the nature of the disease (for example, in case of obesity, it is necessary to limit the consumption of high-calorie products - animal fats and easily digestible carbohydrates, and in case of pulmonary tuberculosis, on the contrary, increase their amount); the severity of the condition and the patient's regime (bed, semi-bed, active, etc.). Therapeutic nutrition must necessarily be balanced and comprehensively complete, taking into account the needs of the patient's body in basic nutrients. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the following circumstances:
The choice of a therapeutic diet should be made taking into account the nature of the main disease, the stage of the disease-causing process, the presence of complications and concomitant diseases, and the severity of the patient's condition. Also, it is necessary to pay attention to the state of the digestive organs and the state of metabolism, the violation of which often occurs in various diseases. This is achieved by the purposeful assignment of a certain amount of nutrients, selection of products, methods of culinary processing and diet. As part of diet therapy , you need to use a strictly defined set of products. For every therapeutic dietlists of prohibited or restricted products are provided, depending on the nature and stage of the disease, as well as the introduction into the diet of products that have medicinal properties. For example, limiting the amount of table salt and liquid in hypertension or carbohydrates in diabetes. The composition of the diet and the nutritional regime of the therapeutic diet should always be adapted to the applied physiotherapy and physical therapy. Do not forget about personal preferences or tolerance (intolerance) of certain products. When using medical nutritionthe patient's appetite must always be stimulated, because it is the main indicator of the quality of digestion processes. For this, the food must have a good taste, smell, color and consistency, and good presentation. Also, you can use natural appetite stimulants in dishes - dill, parsley, celery, etc. Food products must be of high quality, fresh and ecologically clean, the food itself must be stored and prepared in ideal sanitary and epidemiological conditions. At the same time, the method of culinary processing should preserve the nutritional value of products as much as possible. Diet therapy involves observing the principles of mechanical, chemical and temperature sparing of the affected organ or system. After all, the most important moment is therapeutic nutritionthere is strict compliance with the rules of the diet, which provide for:
PREMIUM CHAPTERS ▼
All medical and preventive and sanatorium-resort institutions use a number system of diets developed and proposed by M. I. Pevzner, which are also called diet or treatment tables . Some of them have several options, which are used depending on the stage and features of the course of this or that disease. The number system of diets provides individual therapeutic nutrition for people with various diseases. When the patient has several diseases that require diet therapy , nutrition is prescribed in accordance with the principles of several necessary diets.
Diet No. 1 - is used for peptic ulcer disease of the stomach and duodenum at the stage of fading exacerbation and compensation; chronic gastritis with pronounced dyspeptic symptoms (heartburn, belching), increased acidity of gastric juice.
Diet No. 2 - chronic gastritis with secretory insufficiency during the exacerbation of the disease and the prevalence of intestinal disorders; chronic enterocolitis without exacerbation.
Diet No. 3 - violation of the motor function of the intestine, accompanied by constipation.
Diet No. 4 - is used in all cases of irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, which is accompanied by disorders of intestinal activity.
Diet No. 5 - chronic diseases of the liver and gall bladder outside the period of exacerbation.
Diet No. 6 - gout, uric acid diathesis.
Diet No. 7 - kidney disease in the recovery phase and out of exacerbation.
Diet No. 8 - is used for obesity.
Diet number 9 - diabetes.
Diet No. 10 - diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
Diet No. 11 - is used for lung diseases.
Diet No. 12 - disorders of the nervous system.
Diet No. 13 - acute infectious diseases.
Diet No. 14 - for phosphaturia and oxalaturia.
Diet No. 15 - various diseases that do not require special medical diets and pass without digestive disorders; during the period of recovery and transition to normal nutrition after diet therapy .