Common Types Of Diets In Nutrition And Their Description

Maryam Ayres Author: Maryam Ayres Time for reading: ~33 minutes Last Updated: August 18, 2022
Common Types Of Diets In Nutrition And Their Description

To choose a diet for a person, a nutritionist will analyze his analyzes, the general condition of the body, and only then will recommend what is better to eat, and what should be categorically abandoned in order to avoid deterioration of health. This is why the current media diets don't help everyone lose weight.

In the article we will tell:

  1. Fundamentals of nutrition
  2. What is the difference between nutrition and dietetics
  3. 6 types of diets in nutrition and their description
  4. 10 benefits of a ketogenic diet
  5. Allowed and prohibited foods in the keto diet
  6. Stages of the FODMAP diet
  7. Allowed and prohibited foods in the FODMAP diet
  8. 7 Common FODMAP Diet Mistakes
  9. 8 principles of good nutrition without dieting and starvation
  10. 5 final tips for losing weight

Types of diets in nutrition are based on a balanced approach, which primarily focuses on the health of the losing weight, and not on his excess weight. The lost kilograms are, rather, a wonderful bonus of such nutrition.

To choose a diet for a person, a nutritionist will analyze his analyzes, the general condition of the body, and only then will recommend what is better to eat, and what should be categorically abandoned in order to avoid deterioration of health. This is why the modern diets that are being reported in the media do not help everyone lose weight. In nutrition, there is a reasonable explanation for this.

Fundamentals of nutrition

Nutritionology studies the components of food that enter the body with human nutrition. Science arose at the intersection of dietology, biochemistry, pharmacognosy and food hygiene.

The cells of the body absorb and digest nutrients from food. In the gastrointestinal tract, the substances necessary for the body are absorbed, but what biochemical reactions take place at the same time, what elements food breaks down in the stomach, and how this helps the life and growth of cells, was not entirely clear before. Now these questions are under the scrutiny of nutritionists.

The relationship of a complete or deficient diet to human health and longevity is a broad topic. Nutritionology answers the question: “Why choose nutritious and rich in vitamins and minerals food, without the regular intake of which the body fails and works at its limit?”.


A nutritionist studies the composition and quality of food, the biochemical processes in the body during food metabolism, and the competent preparation of a diet for human needs.

A health coach is a guide to nutritional change that helps the client achieve the desired result. The purpose of the coach is to inspire and support the mentee through communication and special techniques, teach them to believe in themselves and help them adhere to the concept developed by the nutritionist.

Tasks of a nutritionist:

  • To teach a person to properly approach the preparation of a balanced diet in order to avoid deficiency of macro- and micronutrients.

  • Create a menu for people with chronic diseases.

  • Offer therapeutic nutrition to increase the body's natural resistance to infectious pathogens, prevent cardiovascular and oncological diseases, and detoxify.

  • To study the biochemistry of the nutritional process, the role of biologically active additives and additional elements to support the normal life of a healthy organism.

  • Identify the relationship between the patient's food habits and his mental state.

Nutrition is looking for a way to longevity and a high quality of human life without concomitant diseases. The body can function without drugs if it receives the necessary elements with food.


What is the difference between nutrition and dietetics

A nutritionist is a specialist in nutrition and lifestyle.⠀


Both a nutritionist and a dietitian deal with nutrition, but are fundamentally different from each other in the following ways:

  • A nutritionist deals with people with diseases, prescribes medicines, treatment tables and diets.

  • A nutritionist helps to increase the health of a conditionally healthy person with the help of an individual approach to a specific organism, taking into account the lifestyle of the ward.

He knows everything about the composition of products (even the most obscure facts), their interaction with the body, beneficial and harmful effects on health.

He studies the biochemical composition of food and its effect on the human body in order to prevent diseases and improve well-being and health.

With the help of questionnaires and tests, he helps to understand the state of the body and, if necessary, refers to a doctor for a diagnosis.

He will select the necessary supplements to replenish vitamins and other vital substances, the deficiency of which can lead to serious health consequences.

It helps to correctly adjust lifestyle and nutrition individually for a particular person, depending on his request: to lose weight, gain muscle mass, improve well-being and health, increase energy levels, and also to prevent many diseases, and all this without the use of medicines.

The main task of a nutritionist is to help the client understand himself and his body and contribute to its most comfortable and healthy functioning, as well as to build the diet in the most optimal and conscious way.

The nutritionist takes into account a lot of factors - from the patient's genetic predisposition to the current state of health and psychological nuances.

Why nutrition is a growing trend of our time

Nata Gonchar Founder of MIII, President of the Association of Nutritionists and Health Coaches

  • Technologies have appeared so that a person can manage health and well-being.

  • People want to be confident in the competence of their nutritionist.

  • An individual approach to health is the only true way.

  • A nutritionist today should be able to see the relationship between the psyche and health.

  • A readiness for preventive measures comes to society, people are ready to turn to nutritionists BEFORE they get sick.

  • I personally see a great increase in interest in the root causes of disease in diet and lifestyle.

  • Most have already eaten fast food, the trend today is juices, salads and a balanced diet.

  • They began to listen to Ayurveda, we managed to transfer the ancient knowledge to reality and get results.

The essence of any diet

For most people, the concept of "diet" is associated with either weight loss or illness. In the first case, a person struggles with excess weight and limits his diet, in the second he tries to cope with the disease and excludes those foods that can lead to complications.

However, few people know that initially diets were developed as rules for eating food, the purpose of which is to improve the body, and not at all to lose weight. After all, the addition or exclusion of any products from the diet immediately affects health and well-being. Therefore, you need to choose a diet, focusing on existing health problems, and not on the desire to change your appearance.


It is worth noting that diets for weight loss have not been clinically tested. Often they reflect someone's subjective experience and can be harmful to health. Medical diets in this regard inspire more confidence. But in any case, before any change in diet, it is better to consult a specialist.

Today there is a huge variety of dietary schemes. There are those who promise almost instant rejuvenation or weight loss. Such diets should be feared. Only the nutrition scheme that is compiled by a specialist, taking into account the problems and needs of the client's body, will really help to improve your health.

A balanced diet must include fish, meat, dairy products, cereals, cereals, vegetables and fruits. The calorie content of the daily diet should not exceed the energy costs of the body. Don't forget about natural detox. If we are talking about losing weight, then you need to reduce your daily calorie intake gradually, since only in this case the metabolism naturally slows down.

In the modern world, more and more people lead a sedentary sedentary lifestyle and eat high-calorie junk food. Therefore, the problem of losing weight is very relevant. On the Internet, you can see advertisements for various diets that promise a quick effect, but are silent about side effects and contraindications. But the diet is a serious intervention in the work of the body. And if it is chosen incorrectly, then irreparable harm can be done to health.


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Very often, people who choose a diet for themselves do not take into account the reasons for gaining excess weight. They hope to eliminate a few foods from their diet and lose weight immediately. This approach is fundamentally wrong. The diet must be selected, taking into account the problems that exist in the body. And prepare not just for the exclusion of a few products, but for a serious change in habits and lifestyle for a long time.

When choosing a diet, you need to pay attention to several important points. Firstly, the diet should not be too strict, otherwise the body will be depleted, and this should not be allowed. Secondly, the lack of flexibility in the diet can also cause many problems. After all, not everywhere there is an opportunity to adhere to a strictly menu. In addition, foods included in the diet can cause allergies, so there must be an alternative.

And you should always remember that any diet limits the amount of nutrients entering the body, and this can also become a source of problems.

6 types of diets in nutrition and their description

Cholagogue plant-based diet


The basis of antiparasitic programs is a choleretic plant diet. In principle, this is what should be constantly in our diet: choleretic plant foods rich in enzymes. For protein replenishment, the anti-parasitic program always runs at a low amount of protein.

Diet Dash

DASH (stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a dietary regimen that helps lower blood pressure.

It was developed in 1992 in the USA. After testing the diet, it turned out that it reduces not only blood pressure, but also cholesterol, normalizes weight, prevents the development of stroke and heart failure, and is a good prevention of diabetes.

Such a healing effect is largely ensured by a balanced diet. It includes many important elements: calcium, potassium, proteins, plant fibers. They are responsible for the health of the internal systems of the body, as well as skin and hair.

DASH does not oblige a person to consume strictly certain foods. The patient can make his own menu. There are only general recommendations: consume more fruits, vegetables, grains, protein and dairy products, as well as reduce the amount of salt.

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provides sample plans with defined servings of 1600, 2000, or 2600 calories per day. Here is a sample plan for 2000 calories per day:

  • 6-8 servings of grains or grain products (preferably whole grains).

  • 4-5 servings of fruit.

  • 4-5 servings of vegetables.

  • 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy products.

  • 2-3 servings of fats and oils.

  • 1-2 servings of meat, poultry or fish.

With the following weekly limits:

  • 4-5 servings of nuts, seeds or dried beans.

  • Sweets and foods with added sugar are limited to a maximum of 5.


Ketosis is a normal metabolic state. If you imagine that you are a car with a hybrid engine, then this means that you can move both at the expense of gasoline and at the expense of electricity to varying degrees. In ketosis, we rely on fat rather than carbs for energy, and we do it to such an extent that we begin to produce ketones from fat.

Ketones can be used as a source of energy and send many important signals to our cells. There are three types of ketones: acetoacetate (AcAc), β-hydroxybutyrate (BhB), and acetone.


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Acetoacetate is created first and is easily converted to β-hydroxybutyrate. Technically, β-hydroxybutyrate is not a ketone, but is fairly close to it in structure. Acetone is spontaneously created as a by-product of AcAc. Acetone cannot be used as an energy source, but it can show up in the breath, serving as a useful but imperfect indicator of ketosis.

Your body always produces very low levels of ketones, regardless of diet. You start producing significantly more by following a high-fat, low-carb diet. For a weight stable person following a proper ketogenic diet, it is reasonable to consume about 5-10% of calories from carbohydrates, 70-80% from fat, and 20-30% from protein.

The ketogenic diet cuts out anything high in carbs (grains, potatoes, and sweets), or at least only allows tiny, very infrequent portions of them. Low-carb vegetables such as kale, broccoli, lettuce, and other leafy greens can be eaten without restriction.

Vegetables like bell peppers and tomatoes are "allowed" but have slightly more carbs, so they're not as good for those with insulin resistance. The more insulin resistant you are, the harder it is for you to get into ketosis.

All meat, fish, eggs, poultry and seafood are part of a properly formulated ketogenic diet. It is recommended to eat fatty cuts of meat and offal (eg liver).

FODMAP (gut diet)


The diet is shown mainly to persons who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome.

The most important thing to do before prescribing a diet is to make sure that the diagnosis is correct (confirmed by laboratory and instrumental methods), to exclude all possible other pathologies that have a similar clinical picture.

FODMAP is a complex food system. A full transition includes several steps that must be followed.

Here you need to stick to the lists of products: which should be completely avoided; that need to be included in the diet; whose use should be limited.


Any diet is a change in the diet for a while. Detox involves the return of the body's resources and the optimization of the organs involved in the detoxification process, since due to a person's lifestyle and pathologies, they may not fully perform their functions over time. At this time, the load on the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys is reduced, the ability of the digestive organs to independently process nutrients and remove toxins in a natural way increases.

As a result, the metabolism returns to normal, the skin becomes smooth and elastic, acquires a natural color, immunity increases, well-being improves, which positively affects both mood and performance.

Another positive effect of a trendy diet is a noticeable weight loss, which is easily explained by the improvement of the digestive system. Removal of excess fluid relieves swelling, and a restored metabolism helps better absorption of nutrients. Although to a greater extent, the detox diet is aimed at removing harmful substances, toxins that do not come out naturally, but accumulate in the body, poisoning it and interfering with normal life.



The Paleo Diet (Paleo, Stone Age Diet) is an approach to nutrition based on the diet of our ancestors who lived over 10,000 years ago.

The modern Stone Age diet includes fish, meat, poultry, vegetables, fruits, rhizomes, and nuts. It excludes grains and dairy products, legumes, sugar and processed oils. To decide if such a diet is suitable, it is enough to follow it for 30 days.

In essence, the ancient hunter-gatherer diet is a way of life. However, the first results will be noticeable within a few weeks after the start of the Paleo diet. The figure will become noticeably slimmer. To keep the changes and deepen them, you will have to stick to this diet for a long time. A meta-analysis of the impact of the Paleolithic diet concluded "greater short-term improvements in components of the metabolic syndrome than from guideline-based control diets."

If we talk about the features of the paleo diet, it is worth noting that it includes foods high in protein, but there are very few carbohydrates. In percentage terms, it will look like this: 40% protein, 40% fat and only 20% carbohydrates.

Learn more about the keto diet

Ketosis is a metabolic state that maximizes fat burning. However, the amount of ketones produced does not correlate with fat loss, despite the fact that it promotes weight loss if you have extra fat. Normalization of appetite is the main reason for reducing extra pounds.

  • Is ketosis a natural state

Yes. Children are born in ketosis and remain in it as long as they are breastfed. Once babies are given fruit purees, fruit juices, and other nutrient-poor sugar bombs, they are of course no longer in ketosis.

It is fair to say that the time after birth is a special period, and it is quite far from the stages of development and maturity. So what about teenagers and adults? Is ketosis normal for them?

For our ancestors, getting into and out of ketosis was the norm. Starchy vegetables were expensive, energy-poor foods and not available all year round. During long winters or ice ages (the conditions under which we spent most of our evolution), we had to rely on animal meat, a high-fat, low-carb food.

Before the invention of supermarkets, food was not entertainment, but nutrition, and ketosis was a natural state. After you eat nothing for 24-48 hours, ketosis is inevitable. This happens even faster when you are keto-adapted.

So given that food wasn't always plentiful, it's more than likely that our ancestors were often in ketosis, even those who lived in the tropics.


The population living in northern latitudes had much less edible vegetation at their disposal. Luckily, the animals that lived in these areas ate vegetation that was inedible to us, effectively turning it into fatty meat that we enjoyed after a successful hunt.

Ketosis supports brain function. Your liver produces molecules called ketones that burn fat for energy.

  • How to get into ketosis

When embarking on a ketogenic diet, most people would like to know how to quickly get into ketosis and how long it takes. There is a short answer: the more strictly you limit the number of carbohydrates (or total calories), the faster you will reach the goal.


With the exception of taking ketones in supplements, nothing beats intermittent fasting to get you into ketosis fast. This means not eating anything and drinking only water. Fasting, or intermittent fasting, will lead to ketosis within 24-48 hours. The time to enter ketosis will gradually decrease, because the better adapted you are, the faster and easier you will enter ketosis.

If you're not fasting, limiting your carb intake to 20g per day is a good start to get in. This will get you into ketosis within a few days or a week. The time it takes depends on the individual and directly on what you have been eating before, your body composition and how sensitive you are to insulin.


20 g of carbohydrates is very little. Even most keto foods contain some carbs, and it's easy to count them. Many people find it easier to abstain from dairy products, at least initially. Most dairy products, even full-fat ones, contain about 4 g of carbohydrates per 100 ml. If you do not eat dairy products, you will be able to afford more carbohydrates from vegetables and nuts.

After a while, you will notice that you are carrying a little more carbs. If you want, gradually increase them and check the change in the level of ketones and how you feel, look and work. You could start by bringing back dairy products. But be careful if you have insulin resistance, a little milk and yogurt may be enough to get you out of ketosis.

  • Net Carbs vs Total Carbs: How to Count Them

It's quite difficult to stay in ketosis without a break for a very long time. Cafes with friends, your kids' birthday cake, and "hidden carbs" are common enemies of ketosis. But you probably don't want to constantly weigh and count your food for the rest of your life.

So even if you stick to the approved list of ketogenic foods, there is no guarantee that you will be in ketosis without interruption. This is fine.

But if you're in ketosis to deal with cancer or epilepsy, that's a whole different story.

From time to time, you can indulge in more of your favorite moderate-carb vegetables (eg, carrots, bell peppers, parsnips), which can lower your ketone levels or kick you out of ketosis. If you are well adapted to keto, you will be back very quickly.

The main goals of the ketogenic diet for people living in today's world and at risk of chronic disease are:

  • Low insulin levels.

  • Increased sensitivity to insulin.

  • Improved body quality (% fat, % muscle).

  • Normalization of blood pressure.

  • Reduced chronic inflammation.

  • Improving immune function.

  • Stabilization of mood and improvement of brain functions.

Contraindications for keto:

  • Lack of carnitine (primary).

  • Deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I or Il.

  • Deficiency of carnitine translocase.

  • β-oxidation defects.

  • Medium chain acyl dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD).

  • Long chain acyl dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD).

  • Short chain acyl dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency.

  • Deficiency of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA.

  • Whole chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA deficiency.

  • Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency.

  • Porfiry.

10 benefits of a ketogenic diet

  1. Weight loss


    Low-carbohydrate diets are effective for long-term, sustainable weight loss. Eating foods that are high in fat, adequate in protein and low in carbohydrates is the surest way to tame your appetite and feel free from food cravings.

  2. No need to strictly count

    No need for calorie counting, portion control, strenuous exercise, or perpetual hunger. At first, it is enough to know the amount of carbohydrates in food. Everything else will come naturally.

  3. Natural Appetite Control

    Low-carb diets are great for filling you up, and you won't go hungry like other diets. Research has shown that proteins and fats are the most satiating nutrients, while carbohydrates are the least satiating. The more nutrient dense foods you eat, the less hungry you feel and the more fat you lose!

  4. High energy level

    It is difficult to stick to keto in the early stages of consuming low-carb foods: you may experience symptoms known as the “keto flu” (weakness, blurred consciousness, and even blackouts). However, once you get past this stage and adapt, you will feel great!

  5. Eating natural, unprocessed foods

    Eggs, nuts, grass-fed beef, butter, vegetables, and whole dairy products are staples of a healthy, low-carb diet.

  6. Losing fat, not muscle

    Unlike calorie-restricted diets, low-carb diets help preserve muscle tissue. If you eat enough protein, restricting carbs will help you lose fat while maintaining or even building muscle.

  7. A low carb diet is easier to stick to


    Based on a comparison of 19 modern scientific studies, low-carb diets are easier to stick to in the long run compared to low-fat, low-calorie diets in general.

  8. Elimination of the metabolic syndrome

    Excessive consumption of carbohydrates, especially sugar, causes the so-called metabolic syndrome: obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lipid metabolism problems, inflammation and hypertension. A systematic review of major clinical trials of low-carbohydrate diets showed significant weight loss and improvement in major risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  9. Improving dental health

    Sugar significantly changes the pH in the mouth - the less sugar you consume, the less risk you have of gum disease and tooth decay. Much of the evidence today is based on the observations of American dentist Weston Price, who spent his life studying the diets of different cultures.

  10. Ketosis cures

    It is known that any diet containing less than 130-150 grams of carbohydrates is considered "low-carbohydrate". Ketogenic diets are a variety of low-carbohydrate diets that induce a specific metabolic state known as ketosis by restricting carbohydrates to 20-50 grams per day.

    According to research, ketosis may be a useful tool for cancer treatment. The bottom line is that when you limit your carbohydrate intake below 20-50 grams, the body depletes its glycogen stores and starts producing ketone bodies.

    Normal cells can use ketones for energy, but some types of cancer cells cannot use ketones. Keep in mind that it's still too early to say that the ketogenic diet can help fight various types of cancer, but research is underway and they show great results.

    Ketogenic diets have been successfully used to treat neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, autism, depression, migraine, anxiety, and epilepsy. They also have a positive effect on chronic fatigue syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), etc.

Allowed foods on the keto diet

Fats and oils:

  • Organic red meat.

  • High-fat dairy products such as ghee, butter, and heavy cream.

  • Salo, lard and eggs.

  • Olive oil, avocado oil, and macadamia oil (eating avocados and olives will also help you get healthy fats).

  • Flaxseed oil, sesame oil, fish oil, avocado oil and krill oil.


Nuts and seeds:

  • Macadamia nuts.

  • Pecan nuts.

  • Brazilian nut.

  • Walnuts.

  • Hazelnut.

  • Pine nuts, almonds, cashews and pistachios.

  • Pumpkin seeds.

  • Sesame seeds.

  • Sunflower seeds.

  • Tahini (sesame paste).

  • Chia seeds.

  • Flax seeds.



  • Plain Greek yogurt and kefir.

  • Heavy cream.

  • Hard cheeses such as blue cheese, gouda, cheddar and parmesan.

  • Semi-hard cheese such as colby, provolone and swiss cheese.

  • Soft cheeses such as mozzarella, brie and Monterey Jack.

  • Cream cheese, full fat sour cream, mascarpone and full fat cottage cheese.

Meat, eggs and fish:

  • Fatty beef, veal, roast and ground beef.

  • Poultry including chicken, quail, duck, turkey and game. Try to choose darker and fatty meat.

  • Pork, including pork tenderloin, chops, ham, bacon and minced meat.

  • Fish, including mackerel, tuna, salmon, trout, halibut, cod and catfish.

  • Shellfish, including oysters, clams, crab, mussels and lobsters.

  • Organs including heart, liver, tongue, kidneys and organ meats.

  • Eggs, including boiled, fried, scrambled and boiled.

  • Lamb meat.

  • Goat meat.


  • Spinach.

  • Sorrel.

  • Bell pepper.

  • Salad.

  • Bok choy.

  • Leaf cabbage.

  • Arugula.

  • Zucchini.

  • Cauliflower.

  • Green and white cabbage.

  • Cucumbers.

  • Brussels sprouts.

  • Eggplant.

  • Celery.

  • Asparagus.

Fruits and berries:

  • Berries such as strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries and blackberries.

  • Some melons.

  • Sweet cherry.


  • Ordinary water.

  • Water with pieces of fruit or cucumbers.

  • Water with 1-2 drops of lemon or lime juice.

  • Bone broth (improves immunity and intestinal health).

  • Black or green tea.

  • Coffee with heavy cream or coconut milk.

  • Unsweetened almond or hemp milk.


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Herbs and spices:

  • Basil.

  • Oregano.

  • Parsley.

  • Rosemary.

  • Thyme.

  • Coriander.

  • Cayenne pepper.

  • Chili powder.

  • Caraway.

  • Cinnamon.

  • Nutmeg.

  • Lemon or lime juice.

  • Salt and pepper.

Prohibited foods on the keto diet

Fats and oils:

  • As a result of the hydrogenation of unsaturated fats, for example, in the production of margarine, trans fats are obtained. They are very dangerous for the cardiovascular system, as they increase cholesterol and can provoke the development of cancer. Partially hydrogenated oils are also recommended to be excluded from the diet.

  • Vegetable oils that have undergone deep processing, that is, refined. Almost any oil can be highly purified: corn, peanut, rapeseed, sunflower, grape, etc. After processing, they no longer contain useful substances and can be harmful to health, as well as provoke a keto plateau.

Peanut butter:

  • Contains unnecessary sugar.

  • Enriched with trans fats, which are very unhealthy.

  • Has a low fat content.

  • Difficult to digest.

  • Coated in pesticides.

  • It contains a lot of oxalates, which disrupt the absorption of nutrients and provoke the formation of kidney stones.

  • Contains omega-6 fatty acid, the intake of which in large quantities leads to the development of chronic diseases.


  • Skim and whole milk should be excluded from the diet so that the ketosis process is not disturbed. In order to improve its taste, a fat-free product is supplemented with unnecessary sugar for the body, and a cup of whole milk contains about 12.8 g of carbohydrates.

  • Milk with cream contains a lot of sugar and fat. It is more useful to use heavy whipped cream.

  • Condensed canned milk. In fact, it is a very sweet milk syrup. Instead, it is healthier to drink unsweetened full-fat coconut milk.


  • If the animal was fed incorrectly or fed with antibiotics, then the meat may contain harmful substances. Canned meat products, such as sausages, sausages, contain a huge amount of artificial ingredients that can cause serious harm to health.


  • Cereals: wheat, including all wheat products (flour, cereals, etc.), oats, rice, quinoa, barley.

  • Processed foods.

  • Beans and legumes.

  • Sweets, candy, packaged or canned desserts.

  • Tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, banana, papaya, etc.), as well as high-carb fruits (tangerine, grapes, etc.). In addition, it is recommended to exclude juices from the diet, even freshly squeezed ones, and dried fruits in large quantities.

Herbs and spices:

  • Ketchup.

  • Sriracha.

  • Barbecue sauce.

  • Honey mustard.

  • Any condiments in packages containing sugar.


  • Any form of cane sugar.

  • Honey (better use one of the low-carb substitutes for honey).

  • Maple syrup.

  • High fructose corn syrup.

  • Date syrup.

  • Agave syrup.

Stages of the FODMAP diet

FODMAP is an abbreviation for a number of food molecules (mainly sugars) that are fermentable and poorly digestible short chain carbohydrates.

  • Fermentable - Fermentable.

  • Oligosaccharides - Oligosaccharides (several simple sugars linked together - fructans, galactans).

  • Disaccharides - Disaccharides (double sugar - lactose).

  • Monosaccharides - Monosaccharides (single sugar - fructose).

  • And - I.

  • Polyols - Polyols (sugar alcohols - sorbitol, mannitol, isomalt, xylitol, glycerin).

The low FODMAP diet was developed by researchers at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia to help patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Studies around the world have so far confirmed its effectiveness in the management of patients with symptoms of IBS.


Mechanism of action:

  • Короткоцепочечные углеводы (FODMAP-сахара) плохо всасываются в тонкой кишке и доставляются в толстую кишку.

  • Быстро сбраживаются бактериями кишечника, что приводит к образованию газа и увеличивает нагрузку на кишечник.

  • Гетерогенная группа плохо усваиваемых углеводов с короткой цепью является, в итоге, индуктором симптомов синдрома раздраженного кишечника (СРК).

Синдром раздраженного кишечника – функциональное расстройство работы толстого кишечника, связанное с нарушением кишечной перистальтики и переваривания пищи.

Группы риска:

  • Среди населения развитых стран синдром раздраженного кишечника встречается у 5-11 % граждан.

  • Женщины страдают им в 2 раза чаще мужчин.

  • Наиболее характерен для возрастной группы 20-45 лет.

  • If symptoms of IBS are detected after 60 years, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination for organic pathologies (diverticulosis, polyposis, colon cancer). Irritable bowel syndrome in this age group is more than one and a half times less common.

Symptoms of IBS:

  • Pain of varying intensity and duration. The nature of the pain varies from colic to arching pains, more often localized in the lower abdomen or migrate from one part of the abdomen to another. After the stool, the pain is eliminated or, on the contrary, intensified.

  • Diarrhea. Sometimes liquid stools are preceded by stools of a normal or even dense consistency, which can happen as a result of urgent urges. There may be a feeling of incomplete emptying.

  • Constipation. A small amount of feces (less than 100 g) with straining is possible, chronic stool retention for more than 2 days. Sometimes there may be a feeling of incomplete emptying of the intestine. An admixture of mucus in the stool is acceptable.

  • Bloating (flatulence). Accompanied by rumbling and disappearing after intestinal emptying.

  • Manifestations from other organs and systems associated with their impaired visceral sensitivity (headaches, cold feet and hands, feeling of a lump in the throat, urination disorders, nausea, chest pain, dissatisfaction with inspiration, etc.).

  • Psycho-emotional disorders. Unstable mood, depression, hysteria, excessive fears and obsessive thoughts about one's own health, aggressiveness, inadequate response to situations, etc.

The low FODMAP diet involves reducing five main carbohydrate subgroups:

  • Фруктоза в избытке глюкозы.

  • Лактоза (при наличии гиполактазии).

  • Сахарные полиолы (включая сорбитол и маннитол).

  • Фруктаны.

  • Галактоолигосахариды (GOS).

  • Этап №1

Перед изменением диеты у пациентов должны быть достоверно исключены другие состояния, такие как целиакия. Это очень важно, поскольку диетические модификации могут повлиять на точность исследований, например, при целиакии.

Пациенты должны ознакомиться с перечнем продуктов с высоким содержанием FODMAP и исключить их на период около 2–6 недель. Первичной целью этой фазы является уменьшение симптоматики.

  • Этап №2

The second phase is a food challenge, the purpose of which is to identify specific food triggers for each individual. It is unlikely that all high FODMAP foods cause the same symptoms for everyone. Therefore, it becomes a strategic goal to determine the individual intolerance of each of the FODMAP subgroups.


"Physiology of digestion: stages, organs, enzymes" More
  • Stage 3

The final phase is the maintenance phase of the diet. The goal of this phase is to reintroduce as much high FODMAP foods as possible to the patient's diet while closely monitoring symptoms. Any well-tolerated foods should be returned to the diet. Moderately tolerated foods may be returned if eaten infrequently, while poorly tolerated foods should be completely avoided.

Allowed Foods on the FODMAP Diet



  • Avocado (maximum 1/8 of the whole fruit).

  • Banana.

  • Blueberry.

  • Cantaloupe.

  • Grape.

  • Melon.

  • Kiwi.

  • Lemon.

  • Lime.

  • Mandarin oranges.

  • Olives.

  • Orange.

  • Papaya.

  • Plantain.

  • A pineapple.

  • Raspberry.

  • Rhubarb.

  • Strawberry.


  • Artificial sweeteners that do not end in -ol.

  • Brown sugar.

  • Glucose.

  • Maple syrup.

  • Powdered sugar.

  • Sugar (sucrose).

Dairy products and sweeteners:

  • Almond milk.

  • Coconut milk (1/2 cup limit).

  • Hemp milk.

  • Rice milk.

  • Oil.

  • Some cheeses such as brie, camembert, mozzarella, parmesan.

  • Milk, ice cream and lactose-free yogurt.


  • Arugula.

  • Bamboo shoots.

  • Pepper.

  • Broccoli.

  • Bok Choy.

  • Carrot.

  • Ordinary cabbage.

  • Corn (half of the cob).

  • Eggplant.

  • Endive.

  • Fennel.

  • Green bean.

  • Kale.

  • Salad.

  • Parsley.

  • Parsnip.

  • Potatoes.

  • Radicchio.

  • Greens (only green parts).

  • Spinach (young).

  • Squash.

  • Sweet potato.

  • Swiss chard.

  • Tomato.

  • Turnip.

  • Water chestnut.

  • Zucchini.


  • Amaranth.

  • brown rice

  • Oats.

  • Gluten free products.

  • Quinoa.

  • Launched products.


"Trace elements in the body: consumption rates and ways to make up for the deficiency" More


  • Almonds (limit 10 pcs.).

  • Brazilian nut.

  • Hazelnuts (limit 10 pcs.).

  • Macadamia nuts.

  • Peanut.

  • Pecan.

  • Pine nuts.

  • Walnuts.


  • Caraway.

  • Chia.

  • Pumpkin.

Prohibited Foods on the FODMAP Diet



  • Apples.

  • Apricots.

  • Blackberry.

  • Cherry.

  • Grapefruit.

  • Mango.

  • Nectarines.

  • Peaches.

  • Pears.

  • Plums and prunes.

  • Grenades.

  • Watermelon.

  • Canned fruits, dried fruits or fruit juices.


  • Barley.

  • Couscous.

  • Farro.

  • Rye.

  • Semolina.

  • Wheat.

Lactose containing products:

  • Custard.

  • Ice cream.

  • Margarine.

  • Milk (cow, goat, sheep).

  • Soft cheese, including cottage cheese and ricotta.

  • Yogurt (regular and Greek).

  • Buttermilk.

Milk substitutes:

  • Oat milk.


  • Chickpeas.

  • Lentils.

  • Beans.

  • Lima beans.

  • Soya beans.

  • Split peas.

  • Baked beans.

  • Black Eyed Peas.


  • Agave.

  • Fructose.

  • Corn syrup.

  • Honey.

  • Isomalt.

  • Maltitol.

  • Mannitol.

  • Molasses.

  • Sorbitol.

  • Xylitol.


  • Artichokes.

  • Asparagus.

  • Avocado.

  • Beet.

  • Brussels sprouts.

  • Cauliflower.

  • Celery.

  • Garlic.

  • Leek.

  • Mushrooms.

  • Onion.

  • Peas.

  • Greens (white parts).

  • Shallot.

  • Structural peas.

  • Sugar peas.

7 Common FODMAP Diet Mistakes

    1. False diagnosis


      Before starting a treatment protocol, it is recommended to consult a doctor and undergo an examination, as self-diagnosis may be erroneous, and the symptoms are associated with a condition that is much more serious than IBS.

      Diseases with symptoms similar to IBS: celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or even bowel cancer.

    2. Lack of fiber in the diet

      The FODMAP diet often causes constipation. In fact, this symptom indicates a lack of fiber. Make sure you are eating enough legal fruits and vegetables.

    3. lack of movement

      Movement is required for normal bowel function. The easiest and most effective way is walking.

    4. Gut-brain axis

      Sometimes a lot of stress interferes with the lack of results. Working with stress helps not only to get rid of IBS, but also to prevent it in the future.


"Proper nutrition as a factor in maintaining human health" More
  1. Irregular meals

    Irregular eating is directly linked to worsening IBS symptoms.

  2. Lack of habit of reading labels

    FODMAPs are non-allergenic and are not bolded on the label or pasted on the front of the package. Therefore, the products may appear to be safe. But this is only at first glance.

  3. Portion size failure

    Some foods, such as sweet potatoes, contain moderate amounts of FODMAP. From a small portion, nothing terrible will happen. But exceeding the dose can negate the previously achieved results of the diet.

8 principles of good nutrition without dieting and starvation

    1. Nutritional Density

      The first and most important thing that makes our diet complete is the high nutritional density of the foods that make up this diet. This is an absolutely precise and clear concept, which speaks of the content of certain mineral substances in the product, which are necessary for the construction and metabolic processes in the body.

    2. Creating conditions for the full absorption of nutrients

      Good nutrition necessarily creates conditions for the absorption of nutrients. We can eat super nutritious, but if we do not have the conditions for digestion, then, naturally, we will not be able to digest it in any way.

    3. Minimized the presence of anti-inflammatory products

      The fact is that there is no such thing as something bad or something good in the diet, especially in terms of psychology. A nutritionist considers any product to be completely normal, absolutely natural, especially if it is the same vegetable or fruit. The main thing is that this is not some kind of chemically produced product. Many types of foods are simply pro-inflammatory.

      For example, almost all representatives of the nightshade family can be attributed to such types of products. They must be consumed in limited quantities. Or dairy products can often be classified as pro-inflammatory, which may be present in a full-fledged diet, but in fact is also a pro-inflammatory food. In a full-fledged diet, the amount of dairy products is minimized, although there is no question of its complete exclusion.

    4. Consists of vegetables

      A healthy diet mainly consists of vegetables, because this is the basis of a complete food pyramid.

    5. Optimal saturation index

      Some fans of low-protein diets will tell you that you need to eat only greens, only vegetables, and you will be happy. But a nutritionist cannot call this nutrition complete, simply because the satiety index of this diet will be very low. A person simply cannot get enough in any way, especially if he has a strong enough fire of digestion. For the saturation index, it will be necessary to add certain products.

    6. Provokes minimal stress

      Moderate stress provokes the production of hydrochloric acid, the work of enzymes. Distress and chronic stress is bad. Moderate stress is great. In this case, in a full-fledged diet, these are intermittent fasting in compliance with the regimen between meals.


"Psychology of stress: types, stages, methods of struggle" More
  1. Takes into account individual characteristics and needs

    Every person is different and what is good for one will never be good for another. Some people, for example, need warming foods on the menu, others, on the contrary, need cooling foods on the menu, and others need spicier foods.

  2. Consists of maximum local, seasonal, whole, chemical and biological products

    It is simply an essential part of any healthy diet.

5 final tips for losing weight

  1. Listen to your body

    One of the most important things you can do to both prevent relapses and quickly get out of a hole after them is to tune in to the signals your body is sending you. If you feel tempted to deviate from healthy habits, take a step back. How are you feeling? Try to focus on what might be causing your cravings and relapse.

    Mindfulness exercises, comfortable physical activity, or meditation are easy (and free) ways to start building the habit of listening to your body.

  2. Know Your Triggers

    By knowing how you react to different treats, activities, and situations, you can determine whether it's the food itself or external factors that are causing bad decisions.

    An easy way to find out which situations might be dangerous for you is to keep a diary. It allows you to analyze thoughts and feelings in the moment, as well as look back and find what may have caused problems in the past. These records are the most powerful tool for moving towards the goal.

  3. Find what you react to

    Knowing your body and your own triggers is an important step towards developing the right habits and creating clear systems for success.

    Responsibility for your goals, attention to them means that you are definitely on the right track. It doesn't matter if you report your progress to the online community or control everything yourself. The main thing is to find a foothold for yourself and build on it.

  4. Form a plan


    Planning helps prevent misses and bounce back quickly from setbacks. If you're sticking to your meal plan, try cooking at home on the weekends, or research restaurant menus ahead of time when eating out.

    If you are embarrassed to discuss this with your loved one, practice ahead of time. It will be better if your loved ones are in the know.

    If you stumble, it's helpful to immediately make a plan of what you need to do to get back on track. It could be cooking your favorite healthy meal, going for a walk to clear your head, whatever suits you.

    Experiment with what makes you feel better and motivates you to keep moving forward.

  5. forgive yourself

    Despite our best efforts, sometimes things can go wrong. And that's okay. This does not mean that you have failed. It simply means that you had a slight hiccup on a much more important journey towards a healthy lifestyle.

    It is important to accept what happened, learn the lessons and move forward. Focusing on progress rather than perfection is an important part of taking care of yourself. Forgive yourself and keep in mind all the benefits of this way of eating. Remember that it's never too late to start again.

The material is based on research:
  • Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis


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