Dietary nutrition is a particularly important factor not only for the so-called a healthy lifestyle, but it also depends on the field of work.
Dietary nutrition is a particularly important factor not only for the so-called healthy lifestyle, but also for any kind of treatment. An important requirement when building a diet is that it be composed of a variety of products. This variety should be implemented both when compiling the daily, weekly and monthly menu, as well as for individual meals, even meals.
Cereals and pulses, milk and eggs, meat and fish, fruits and vegetables should be included in diet meals in an appropriate form and combination. In some diseases, this is impossible, since the diet is initially associated with a certain restriction of food. Another essential requirement for the diet is that it meets or approaches the rational ratio between proteins, fats and carbohydrates /for example 1:1:4, and in a number of cases - 1:0,8:3/. In many diseases, especially in their active stage, this ratio can be temporarily changed. For example, with viral hepatitis, during a month or two, patients take 500-600 grams of carbohydrates, 10-30 grams of proteins and a very minimal amount of fat (up to 5 grams) per day.However, in the healing period of the disease, the amount of protein daily rises to 90-100 grams,
An important requirement for the diet is the maximal adaptation of the built-up dietary regimes to the taste requirements of the individual, especially the patient with his specific physiological needs for nutrients and energy, with the peculiarities of his exchange, as well as with the peculiarities of national and regional traditions, of the geographical area.
A requirement for the diet is that it be mechanically, thermally and chemically gentle. For example, in diabetes mellitus, carbohydrates are significantly reduced and glucose, fructose /fruit sugar/, sucrose are sharply limited, achieving chemical sparing of the diseased organ /pancreas/. In chronic inflammation of the large intestine, the food does not contain cellulose and other "ballast substances", and in this way, the irritating effect of these ingredients on the intestine is prevented and the development of bacterial flora in it is suppressed. Such a diet is mechanically gentle on the diseased organ.
Another important requirement is the culinary processing of the food. For example, with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, food preparation should exclude frying and the addition of spicy spices. Food is prepared in the form of soups, purees, porridges, boiled, baked, steamed, stewed. In this way, fats are not oxidized to substances that irritate the stomach lining.
The distribution of food in several meals during the day is very important. Most often, the diet of patients is divided into four meals during the day, and then 25% of its volume and energy fall on the morning breakfast, 40% - on the lunch, 15% - on the afternoon snack and 20% - on the dinner. In a similar way, food is distributed quantitatively for diabetics and heart patients. For a number of disease states, food is served five times a day. In such cases, the morning breakfast represents 15% of the volume of the menu and its energy value, the second breakfast - 10%, the lunch - 40%, the afternoon snack - 10-15%, and the dinner 20-25% .In this way, the food is distributed in the treatment diets for gastritis, for gastrointestinal surgery, chronic colitis and enterocolitis, and diseases of the liver and bile ducts.
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The nutrition of industrial workers should satisfy the needs of nutrients and energy to strengthen health and resistance to the adverse effects of some factors of the working environment, to help increase work capacity. It is based on the general principles of rational nutrition to balance the nutrients in the daily ration and the need to provide sufficient food - sources of energy.
When developing norms and menus, it should be taken into account that the needs of nutrients and energy increase along with the intensity of physical activity.
There are four intensity groups: low intensity, moderate intensity, high and very high intensity. Sufficient amounts of protein must be included in the rations to maintain high sustained performance. The relative share of proteins of animal origin is 50%, and half of them - from milk and milk products. Vegetable fats should be 35% and cow butter 25% of the total amount of fat. According to physiological norms, 30-40% of carbohydrates are supplied by pulses /beans, lentils, soybeans, peas/, vegetables and fruits, and sugar is no more than 15%. The ratio between proteins, fats and carbohydrates is 1:1:4, and with very heavy physical exertion - 1:1:5.
Increased amounts of vitamins are necessary when working with significant weight or nerve-sensory tension, the presence of harmful substances, and extreme conditions, especially in the process of adaptation. In some productions and work in harmful conditions with a high percentage of colds, it is advisable to give synthetic multivitamin preparations /Vitaton, Vitaral and others/ or complexes of mineral salts and vitamins. Special attention should be paid to the nutrition of young workers. It is necessary to take into account not only the nature and intensity of work, but also the physiological features of the transition age, incomplete growth process, greater sensitivity to adverse environmental factors.It is very important to regularly include in the food ration products that are sources of complete proteins - milk and milk products, meat, fish, eggs.
A 4-time meal is recommended, three of which are provided by the chair of the enterprise: a supporting meal, lunch, resp. dinner. Nutritional requirements for night shift work are dictated by the diurnal periodicity of physiological functions and changes in metabolism during the night.
To maintain the acid-base balance in the body, the night meal should include products with a basic /alkalizing/ action, such as milk, vegetables, and fruits. To improve the motor and mental functions, sufficient proteins are included, and due to the reduced utilization of glucose by the tissues, mainly hard-to-absorb polysaccharides /bread/ are taken. Animal fats, butter and margarine are limited. To maintain the tone of the nervous system and high performance, tonic drinks (coffee, tea, cocoa, etc.) are recommended.
When working on the night shift, the following distribution of food is appropriate: light breakfast before sleep - 20%, lunch 35%, late evening breakfast - 20% and nighttime snack - 25% of the energy value of the daily ration.