Healthy Eating: Social Problems

Time for reading: ~15 minutes Last Updated: August 28, 2022
Healthy eating: social problems

The connection between what we eat and our health has long been well known, and most people today understand that their diet affects the body in one way or another.

The connection between what we eat and our health has long been well known, and most people today understand that their diet affects the body in one way or another.

Good nutrition and enjoyment of food play a big role in maintaining vigor and health. However, many of us become accustomed to eating in ways that can harm our health rather than improve it.

The style of eating in many Western countries cannot be called healthy. In general, there is a tendency to eat too much of certain foods that are high in fat, sugar, and salt. This causes a number of problems. In the United Kingdom, for example, 36% of the population is overweight. The problem of being overweight is more acute in men than in women, whose levels of vitamin C and iron in the blood are more often below normal.

Unfortunately, food today is not what it used to be. After the Second World War, intensive methods of growing agricultural products appeared, based on the use of huge amounts of pesticides, nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers. These chemicals not only deplete the soil, but are also sources of food contamination. High yields are achieved through the massive use of fertilizers, which, in turn, create ideal conditions for the reproduction of harmful insects and the development of diseases. On soils enriched with nitrogen, molds, fungi and aphids multiply faster, often being carriers of viral diseases.

Without any doubt, it is much more beneficial for health to eat freshly prepared food from natural products, eat slowly and enjoy food.

Properly built human nutrition is one of the most important factors in maintaining health and ability to work, normal growth and development of the child. As a result, food must meet the following requirements:

  1. Since the body continuously spends its constituent substances, food must contain all the substances that make up the human body, i.e. proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, vitamins and water.

  2. Food should cover all the expenses of the body, depending on its age, gender, profession and all the conditions in which a person lives - social. conditions, climate, etc.

  3. Food should cause a feeling of fullness, be pleasant in taste, which contributes to better digestion of all nutrients in the digestive organs and better absorption.

When food is digested in the gastrointestinal tract, complex substances - proteins, fats and carbohydrates - are broken down into simpler substances that dissolve in digestive juices and enter the bloodstream. They are carried by blood throughout the body to all organs and tissues.

If you are concerned about how you eat, regardless of the cause of concern, you may benefit from keeping a record of the food you eat for about a week. Just write down everything you ate and drank for a full week, and then analyze your diet. You will be able to conclude how you can gradually improve it.

Health nutrition child energy consumption

Calculation of average daily energy consumption

Table 1


Kind of activity



1. Factory worker


Sleep Personal hygiene Dressing Moderate work Heavy work Eating Walking 5 km/h Walking 8 km/h Computer work Lecture Mental work sitting Basic metabolism Total

8 0.5 0.5 4 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 16

480 cal. 1.91x0.5x60=57.3 1.97x0.5x60=59.1 4.14x4x60=993.6 6.4x4x60=1536 1.4x2x60=168 5.1x1x60=306 9.3x1x60=558 2.0x1x60=120 3.0х1х60=180 1.46х1х60=87.6 890 5445.6

Schoolboy (grade 11)


Sleep Personal hygiene Dressing Mental work sitting Eating Washing dishes Walking 5 km/h Standing running Playing volleyball

9.5 1 0.5 5 1.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.5

604.5 1.91x1x65=124.15 1.97x0.5x65=64.025 1.46x5x65=474.5 1.4x1.5x65=136.5 2.1x0.5x65=68.25 5.1x1x65=331.5 1 .6x0.5x65=52 3.6x0.5x65=117






Kind of activity




Singing Lecture Light work Basic exchange Total

0.5 1.5 2 14.5

1.74x0.5x65=67.24 3.0x1.5x65=292.5 2.4x2x65=312 806.5 3450.0



Sleep Lying awake Personal hygiene Dressing Eating Washing dishes Washing the floor Walking 5 km/h Sewing Reading books Light work Moderate work Mental work sitting Basic metabolism Total

10 1 0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 1 3 2 1 1 2 14

850 1.1x1x85=93.5 1.91x0.5x85=81.175 1.97x0.5x85=83.725 1.4x1x85=119 2.1x0.5x85=89.25 3.3x0.5x85=140.25 5.1x1x85=433 .5 1.6x3x85=408 3.2x2x85=544 2.4x1x85=170 4.14x1x85=351.9 1.46x2x85=248.2 778.75 4391.25


Calculation of the average diet








Factory worker

Breakfast: Eggs bread millet. from flour I grade sugar butter

2 pcs 150 g 20 g 20 g

140 387 77.6 157.4

10.8 0.75 -- 16.8

10.8 8.7 -- 0.2

0.4 84.15 18.94 0.12

1-60 0-13 0-30 2-10

Lunch: St. cabbage soup pea butter creamy mashed potatoes boiled meat (beef) watermelon bread millet. from flour II grade

200 g 1 serving 20 g 200 g 100 500 g 150 g

40 379.5 157.4 126 100 55 325.5

0.2 19.5 16.8 0.2 4.0 -- 0.6

1.8 4.45 0.2 2.0 14.7 1.5 10.35

7.0 64.15 0.12 27.8 0.5 11 67.8

0.40 2-05 2-10 0-20 8-00 1-50 1-20

Dinner Vermicelli with beef sausage Bread from II grade flour Butter Butter Boiled sausage Sugar

200 g 1 piece 200 g 20 g 50 g 30 g

688 98 434 157.4 99.5 116.4

1 6.75 0.8 16.8 6.95 --

18.6 5.85 13.8 0.2 6.55 --

146.6 2.75 90.4 0.12 1.95 28.41

2-00 2-00 1-60 2-10 3-00 0-45








Schoolboy grade 11

Breakfast rice porridge sugar bread from flour I grade butter butter

1 serving 20 g 150 g 20 g

398.8 77.6 387 157.4

4.9 -- 0.75 16.8

9.9 -- 8.7 0.2

76.2 18.94 84.15 0.12

1-90 0-30 0-13 2-10

Lunch Grated carrots Potatoes with liver bread from flour of the 1st grade Butter grapes

100 g 150 g 100 g 150 g 20 g 200 g

30 94.5 117 387 157.4 112

0.2 0.15 4.1 0.75 16.8 --

0.6 1.5 17.1 8.7 0.2 1.4

6.3 20.85 2.1 84.15 0.12 26

0-40 0-15 6-00 0-13 2-10 3-20

Dinner white mushrooms butter butter bread from flour I grade jam

100 g 20 g 100 g 100 g

46.8 157.4 258 244

0.4 16.8 0.5 --

5.4 0.2 5.8 --

5.1 0.12 56.1 59.4

-- 2-10 0-90 3-20









Breakfast cottage cheese fatty milk sour cream sugar

150 g 200 ml 100 g 50 g

349.5 133.6 301.6 204.8

27 7.4 30.0 --

22.5 6.8 3.0 --

1.5 9 2.5 49.95

6-00 1-60 1-10 0-65

Lunch pasta chicken meat tomatoes cucumbers onions bulb oranges bread made from II grade flour

150 g 100 g 50 g 50 g 20 g 100 g 50 g

536.55 128.5 7.5 4.5 7.2 19 108.5

1.35 5.0 0.05 0.05 0.02 -- 0.2

16.5 20.0 0.25 0.3 0.18 0.6 3.45

111.3 --- 1.4 0.75 1.5 4.1 22.6

1-50 4-50 0-60 0-45 0-14 2-00 0-40

Dinner porridge semolina honey bread from flour II grade

1 serving 50 g 150 g

408 157.5 325.5

4.3 -- 0.6

11.1 0.05 10.5

78.6 37.95 67.8

1-60 3-50 1-20









The number of calories needed to cover the expenses of the body depends in an adult mainly on the work he does. So, people of mental labor, whose work is not associated with large movements, with tension and muscle work, require 3,000 calories to cover their expenses; with mechanized physical work, such as the work of a turner, miller, spending increases to 3500 calories. With more strenuous physical work, such as the work of a locksmith, plumber, blacksmith, carpenter, tractor driver, about 4000 calories; finally, during the most difficult physical work, like the work of a loader, digger, miner, at least 5000-5500 calories are required.

Large expenditures of the body are observed in some sports, such as swimming, skiing, cycling, football, etc. To cover the caloric expenditure of a person, his food should include proteins, fats and carbohydrates in appropriate amounts.


Proteins occupy a special place among all nutrients (PREMIUM)

As you know, every living cell, every tissue of the body at its base consists of protein. Thus, although part of the protein is used to cover energy expenditure, its main purpose is that it is a plastic material that is absolutely necessary for tissue growth, for recovery, for the formation of new cells. At present, Soviet scientists have accumulated a large amount of scientific material, which indicates that proteins are of great importance for the body. With a lack of protein, the growth of a young organism stops, the activity of a number of systems and organs of an adult organism is disrupted.

The source of protein in the diet are various products of animal and vegetable origin: meat, fish, milk, eggs, cereals, bread. A small amount of protein is also found in vegetables. Science has established that not all proteins are equally valuable to the body. According to their chemical structure, proteins of animal food products are closest to the proteins of the human body, but vegetable proteins are also of great importance in nutrition. All proteins are made up of special chemicals called amino acids. By the number of amino acids that make up the protein and by the way they are connected to each other, they are more or less similar to the proteins of the human body. With a diverse range of food products, the lack of amino acids in one product is covered by their excess content in others. For example, buckwheat lacks one extremely important amino acid for the body, but if milk is added to buckwheat, this deficiency is corrected and when these products are combined, a complete protein is obtained. The disadvantages of other cereals are also eliminated when combined with vegetables, for example, potatoes and cabbage and animal products. From this it is quite clear that one of the main requirements of rational nutrition is the diversity of food products in human nutrition.

An adult needs about 100 grams of protein per day. So in this example, the amount of protein in adults is almost approximately normal, and the student needs to add food with a high protein content to the diet.

Fats (Nutrients) (PREMIUM)

Fats (neutral) are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are esters of glycerol and fatty acids, mainly palmitic, stearic and oleic.

Fats are very common in animal and plant foods. In the human body, part of the fats is contained in a free form (reserve fat), the rest is part of the cell protoplasm (structural fat).

Fat in the human body is in a semi-liquid state, since the melting point of fat is 17.50. This fat - one of the least solid - contains from 45 to 47% oleic acid. Body fats are formed not only from the fats of food products entering the body, but from carbohydrates and proteins. When eating an excess amount of fat, carbohydrates, the accumulation of adipose tissue occurs, with insufficient nutrition or starvation, the amount of fat decreases.

Fats in food increase its nutritional and especially energy value, improve the organoleptic properties of food. They are good solvents for vitamins A, D, E, K and contribute to their introduction into the body.

Sources of fats are many products of animal and vegetable origin, in particular, animal fats - milk, meat, fish, eggs, etc. Sources of vegetable fats are oilseeds (sunflower, hemp, flax, etc.) and nuts (up to 40-50% their weight) Cereals contain a small amount of fat; the main part of the fat is contained in the germ of the grains of these cereals.

In this case, in the first category, the norm of fat per day should be 121 g, and according to the calculation, the number is less. The second category has a daily norm of 84 g. And for the third it is 91 g. We can conclude that this diet contains food that is low in fat, if possible, you need to add the necessary grams of fat (including animal fat).

Carbohydrates (PREMIUM)

Carbohydrates are found mainly in foods of plant origin. Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. These compounds were named in 1844 by the domestic scientist K. Schmidt as carbohydrates, since hydrogen and oxygen are in them in the same quantitative ratio as in water. Carbohydrates are divided into three groups:

  1. Monosaccharides (simple sugars), which include only one molecule of simple sugar;

  2. Disaccharides, which include two molecules of simple sugar (monosaccharide);

  3. Polysaccharides, which include several molecules of simple sugar.

Monosaccharides include glucose (grape sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) found in fruits and berries. Disaccharides include sucrose (beet or cane sugar), maltose (malt sugar), lactose (milk sugar). Polysaccharides include glycogen, starch, fiber. Glycogen is found in animal organisms, starch is found in cereal grains (65-70%), in potato tubers (up to 25%), etc.

Carbohydrates are easily broken down by enzymes. Ptyalin (saliva enzyme) breaks down starch into maltose, maltose (saliva enzyme) breaks down maltose into glucose, amylase (pancreatic and acid juice enzyme) breaks down starch into monosaccharides, etc.

The most easily absorbed by the body are monosaccharides, as well as disaccharides - sucrose, lactose and maltose.

According to the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, a person's need for carbohydrates, depending on energy costs, ranges from 450-650 g per day.

If we compare the indicators of this example with the norms, then we see that the first category has a norm of 631 g per day, the second 471 g, the third 433 g. These figures are much higher than in the example. This means adding more vegetables and fiber to your diet.

Calories In The Food (PREMIUM)

The breakdown of nutrients in the body is accompanied by the release of potential chemical energy, which the body converts into certain types of work. The amount of released energy is equivalent to the amount of heat obtained from the combustion of such substances, except for proteins. The amount of heat obtained from protein oxidation is somewhat less than the amount of heat obtained from combustion, because proteins are not completely broken down in the body, and there is still a small amount of potential energy in the released protein breakdown products (urea, uric acid, creatine). The breakdown of nutrients in the body and the release of energy is accompanied by the consumption of oxygen.

The calorie content of foodstuffs is calculated in two forms: net and gross. The net calorie content of a food product is the number of calories provided by the digestible portion of the food product. Gross calorie is the number of calories that can provide the total amount of nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) in the product, including the undigested part.

The quantity and quality of food introduced into the body must cover the body's expenditures in substances and their energy. Energy expenditure and the body's need for nutrients depend on the ambient temperature, age, height, degree of fatness, nature and amount of work. A person in a state of complete rest consumes about 1700 calories per day.

In these groups, we see that the first group has 1641 calories per day, the second group 1181, the third 1211. Compared with the indicators obtained during the experiment, these figures exceed the norm.

Vitamins In The Food (PREMIUM)

Food, consisting only of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and water, does not ensure the normal functioning of the body and cannot sustain its existence for a long time. It should also contain vitamins, which are an essential part of the diet.

At present, the existence of a significant number of vitamins (more than 20) has been established, which are indicated by the letters of the Latin alphabet: A, B, C, D , E, K, etc. A number of vitamins also received a name at the same time - with the prefix anti - that of the disease that this vitamin prevents. For example, vitamin D is called antirachitic, vitamin C is called antiscorbutic, and so on.

Prolonged absence or a sharp lack of any vitamin in food causes a pathological condition called beriberi.

A pathological condition caused by the lack of several vitamins in food is called polyavitaminosis. A disease state that occurs on the basis of an insufficient content of vitamins in food is called hypovitaminosis. At the same time, in addition to general weakness, easy fatigue, mental depression, etc., the body becomes less resistant to infections.

Avitaminosis and hypoavitaminosis can also occur with a sufficient content of the corresponding vitamins in food, if the processes of absorption of vitamins in the intestine are disturbed. Hypoavitaminosis can also occur in cases where the body needs an increased amount of a particular vitamin, such as during a period of intensive growth, pregnancy, when the body is exposed to high and low temperatures, with increased physical activity, infectious disease, etc. .

Vitamins are divided into two groups:

  1. Soluble in water, which include vitamin C, a group of vitamins B, etc .;

  2. Soluble in fats and fat solvents (ether, chloroform) - vitamins A, D , E, K.

In winter, in spring, more vitamins are required, because the body is on the verge of vitamin deficiency.

The amount of energy consumed by a person and the required number of calories are determined by two methods - calculated (according to tables) and experimental (according to gas exchange).

When determining energy consumption by calculation, the time spent by a person during the day to perform various types of work, as well as to rest and sleep, is timed. In the future, using tables that indicate the energy consumption during the performance of such work, the total amount of energy consumed by a person per day is calculated. Such a calculation method, despite the introduction of a number of amendments into it, gives only very approximate data on the true energy consumption. More accurate data can be obtained by studying the energy consumption experimentally.

Experimentally, the amount of energy expended by a person is calculated by determining the amount of oxygen absorbed by him and released CO2 over a certain period of time and calculating the respiratory coefficient (the ratio of exhaled CO2 to the absorbed oxygen). Such studies are carried out over a number of days to more accurately determine the daily energy expenditure.

Human nutrition can be considered rational if the introduced food covers all the body's needs for nutrients, if the body weight is maintained at a normal level and the normal functioning of all organs is ensured. In a growing organism, nutrition should ensure the normal development of the organism as a whole, all its tissues and organs, and the correct increase in body weight.

When compiling a diet, one must proceed from the following hygienic requirements:

  1. Food should be deliciously prepared, have a pleasant appearance, in order to excite the appetite and cause pleasant taste sensations, as this improves digestion and increases the digestibility of food;

  2. The diet should consist of a combination of different foods and flavors; a varied and tasty table stimulates the appetite and provides the body with all the necessary nutrients; with a monotonous diet, the body may lack the substances it needs - some amino acids, mineral elements, vitamins, etc .;

  3. The volume and composition of food should not burden the digestive tract.

Rational nutrition of a person also requires a proper diet, i.e. proper distribution of meals throughout the day.

Conclusions (PREMIUM)

If we take into account the real economic condition of each of the social groups indicated in this work, it should be noted that all of them, in material terms, have an income below the subsistence level. It follows that the calculated energy costs exceed those obtained from the food rations given in the work.

To cover the caloric expenditure of a person, the composition of his food should include increased amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, so that a person lives a fruitful life and spends them not only on labor costs, but also on some sports.


To feel vigorous and healthy, you need to remember that a truly balanced diet is a varied diet, which includes the most useful types of food, vitamins and minerals.

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