Heart Disease And Diabetes

Dean Rouseberg Author: Dean Rouseberg Time for reading: ~11 minutes Last Updated: August 09, 2022
Heart Disease and Diabetes

People with diabetes are also more likely to have other conditions that raise the risk for heart disease: High blood pressure increases the force of blood through your arteries and can damage artery walls.

What is diabetes


Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin and/or the action of insulin is impaired (insulin resistance). These disorders lead to an increase in blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

Through food, a person acquires the necessary building blocks and energy. The main source of energy for the body is glucose. During the breakdown of carbohydrate-rich foods (bread, rice, potatoes, fruit), glucose is released in the stomach. Getting into the blood, it reaches all the organs and turns into energy necessary for their functioning. Part of the glucose is stored in the body as reserve substances, which are converted into blood sugar during fasting and in the periods between meals.

After a meal, elevated blood sugar (glucose) stimulates the pancreas to release insulin. Insulin is a hormone that reduces blood sugar, causing it to enter the cells of the organs. This provides the necessary energy for their work. Some organs, such as the brain and red blood cells, obtain the glucose they need without the help of insulin.

When the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the body's needs, blood sugar rises. High levels of glucose in the blood together with an inadequate supply of energy to the cells give rise to the symptoms and complications of diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes is not a disease. There are several forms that differ depending on the underlying disorder that led to the increase in blood sugar.



Type 1

Type 2

  1. The body does not produce insulin

  2. In children and young people

  3. Autoimmune desease

  4. Rapid development of the clinical picture

  1. The action of insulin is impaired

  2. All ages, more often after 40 years.

  3. Associated with obesity and immobility

  4. Slowly and gradually


In type 1 diabetes, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed. For this reason, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. To compensate for this lack, from the very beginning, the treatment of this disease must begin with insulin. Less than 10% of diabetics have type 1. Type 1 diabetes develops in genetically predisposed individuals under the influence of external factors - stress, infections, nutritional factors. Appears at a young age - in children and young people under 35-40 years of age.

In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the action of insulin is impaired (insulin resistance). The amount of insulin produced by the pancreas may be greater than normal, but due to the disturbance in its action, the passage of glucose into the cell is difficult and it remains in the blood. Over time, this type also leads to a decrease in the amount of insulin produced. Type 2 diabetes occurs most often in people over the age of 40, but in recent years it has been seen more and more often in younger people and children. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of this disease. Genetic predisposition (hereditary factors) is also of great importance. This is the most common type of diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a special form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. In the majority of patients, blood sugar normalizes after delivery.

Some diseases and the use of certain drugs can cause the appearance of other specific forms of diabetes mellitus.

Under the attention of dietetics comes overeating, excessive food intake of carbohydrates and fats and genetic predisposition - main etiological factors for the development of diabetes.

The ratio Fats:Carbohydrates (M:B) = 1:4 is recommended, and it is established practically that M:B =1:2.

Overeating is stress, a "blow" to the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas and depletion of insulin-producing beta cells.

Some foods are problematic for diabetics and people at risk of diabetes - pure refined simple sugars, fats (mostly animal), and sugars.

Obesity over 80% triggers diabetes.


Dietary requirements


Limiting the energy value of food (up to the norm), and in case of obesity – subnorm.

Limiting carbohydrates to 150 g/d at the expense of refined simple sugars, and increasing complex sugars (especially those containing dietary fiber - cellulose and pectins: whole-grain cereals and foods with a low glycemic index); Limiting fats (mainly animal) to 60 g/d; Enough proteins.

A diabetic diet is often the primary treatment for diabetes.

The dietary regimen is strictly individual and dynamically changing;

Protein is lost due to increased degradation and vascular-degenerative damage.

Rich presence of vitamins (various vegetables) and minerals (non-sweet fruits - mostly, pectin-rich - apples and citrus fruits);

K – apricots, strawberries, cucumbers, nettles;

Cu- cereals and legumes;

Mg- cereals, legumes;

vit. B-group - wheat bran, yeast, vegetables, fruits, dairy products;

Fat-soluble vitamins - A, E, PNMK - milk proteins, meat, etc.

Bee honey has 40% fructose, so it can be taken in a dosed amount;

Fructose does not burden the insular apparatus;

Sorbitol (6-atom alcohol), xylitol (5-atom alcohol), etc.



Sample diet







  1. A sandwich of whole wheat bread with cream of skimmed cottage cheese, tomatoes and olives.

  2. Airyan

  1. Garden soup

  2. Sarmi with meat

  3. Whole wheat bread

  4. Strawberry jelly


  1. Steamed eggs with spinach

  2. Lettuce

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Cream


  1. Oatmeal

  2. Milk

  3. Fruit

  1. Beef stew

  2. Vegetarian liver-sarma in a pancake

  3. Fruit

  1. Fish with fresh mushrooms and beet salad

  2. Steamed zucchini

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Fruit


  1. Cottage cheese cake

  2. Airyan

  1. Tomato soup

  2. Boiled meat rolls

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Fruit

  1. Roasted pepper salad

  2. Cauliflower brain

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Fruit jelly


  1. Sandwich with ham and cheese, topped 

  1. Chicken soup

  2. Spinach croquettes

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Fruit

  1. Chicken steak with a garnish of stewed carrots

  2. Celery salad with yogurt

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Fruit


  1. Whole wheat bread with egg

  2. Tomato juice

  1. Borscht

  2. Stuffed peppers with sour milk

  3. Fruit

  1. Stewed fish with vegetables

  2. Stuffed tomatoes with cottage cheese

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Cocoa cream


  1. Pancakes with ham and cheese

  2. Airyan (Yogurt+Water)

  1. Spinach cream soup

  2. Stephanie roll and brown rice

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Fruit

  1. Paprika

  2. Lettuce

  3. Fruit salad with vinegar. milk


  1. Boiled wheat with cinnamon and walnuts

  2. Milk

  1. Meatball soup

  2. Green Bean Stew

  3. Whole grain bread

  4. Yogurt

  5. Fruit

  1. Steamed meatballs with a garnish of stewed peas

  2. Mixed salad

  3. Caramel custard






Cardiovascular system (PREMIUM)


The cardiovascular system is made up of blood vessels filled with circulating fluid - blood, and a central organ - the heart, which sets this fluid in motion. It is divided into two departments, which are referred to as the circulatory and lymphatic systems. The circulatory system carries blood around the body and consists of the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arterial vessels transport blood from the heart to the capillaries, from where it passes into the veins, through which it returns to the heart.

The heart is a hollow muscular organ with a pumping function, performing rhythmic contractions thanks to which blood moves in the blood vessels. In humans, the heart is divided into two halves - left and right. In turn, each half is divided into two cavities: the upper - atrium, and lower - chamber. Between the atrium and the chamber of each half of the heart, there is an opening with a valve that allows blood to flow in only one direction - from the atrium to the chamber. The right half of the heart pumps venous blood and the left half pumps arterial blood.

Venous blood from the right ventricle moves along the pulmonary trunk, which divides into two pulmonary arteries, which branch into smaller vessels and form the capillaries of the lungs. In the pulmonary capillaries, gas exchange takes place between the blood and atmospheric air. In this process, venous blood gives off carbon dioxide and is enriched with oxygen, transforming into arterial or oxidized blood. Through the pulmonary veins, this blood is carried to the left atrium. The path of blood from the right ventricle to the left atrium is called the small circle of blood circulation or pulmonary circulation.

From the left ventricle, the oxygen-rich arterial blood is pumped into the aorta, which branches into smaller vessels - arteries. From the arteries, blood reaches the capillary system of various organs and tissues. At the capillary level, nutrients and oxygen are given from the blood, which passes into the cells, and waste products from cellular metabolism are taken. In this way, the blood is transformed into oxygen-poor venous blood. Venous blood is transported by a system of venous vessels to the right atrium, into which two large venous vessels flow - the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood vessels located from the left ventricle to the right atrium are united under the name "great circle of circulation" or "systemic circulation". The systemic circulation of the cardiovascular system also includes portal circulation, which collects blood from the unpaired abdominal organs - the pancreas, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. This blood is carried to a large venous vessel - portal vein or vena porta, which enters the liver and breaks up into sinusoids - dilated capillaries. They form the hepatic veins, which flow into the inferior vena cava. The pathway that passes through the portal tract involves sequentially arteries-capillaries-veins-sinusoids-veins, while the blood that bypasses the portal circulation system passes through arteries-capillaries-veins.


Dietary requirements (PREMIUM)

Diet therapy is an additional essential remedy to drug therapy. Its purpose is:
- To ease the work (contraction capacity) of the heart muscle;
- To normalize the disturbed exchange;
- To stimulate the excretion of the non-oxidized products of organic substances;
- To activate the emission of Na and liquidate edema.

Fats: Significantly reduced. They are a specific irritant of the secretory function of the pancreas. Maximum sparing is required.

While the digestion of carbohydrates started in the oral cavity (salivary amylase) and continued in the intestinal juice (disaccharidases), the digestion of proteins started in the gastric juice (pepsin) and continued in the intestine (dipeptidases), the digestion of fats is extremely dependent by pancreatic lipases.

1. Limitation of:

Portions and bulky foods (without cabbage, legumes - beans, lentils, peas, high-cellulose vegetables that raise the diaphragm), stimulants of the heart's wiring system - strong broths, teas, coffees, alcohol, spices; the energy value.

2. Improving the contractility of the myocardium:

- K - apricots, bananas, figs, grapes, plums, potatoes, etc. (especially when using diuretics);

- Mg – fruits, cereals, nuts;

- Ca – dairy products (curd);

P – dairy products, fish;

Vitamins of group B, C, P.

3. To help improve metabolism:

Low-energy food intake;

- Maybe Karel's diet - potassium diet (potatoes);

-Maybe the Kempner diet – rice diet;

- Maybe unloading days - with apples, watermelons, strawberries, cherries, yogurt, etc.

-In the initial period of decompensation, fats (animal), proteins and carbohydrates are reduced (in order to relieve the burden on the metabolism), but after 3-7 days they are included again;

-Carbohydrates are both complex and simple (sugar, honey, glucose, sweet foods);

4. To help release the non-oxidized (acidic) products of the exchange:

- of fatty acid residues – acetones, beta-oxybutyric acid, lactic and pyruvic acid, etc. These are the low-calorie diets with less fats, proteins and carbohydrates, and with more vitamins and minerals with alkaline valences: vegetables and fruits, i.e. – vegetarian model: carrots, root vegetables, leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, whole grains, fruits (rich in K);

5. To contribute directly to the elimination of edema

- Limitation of NaCl (depending on the severity - from 1.5 to 5 g/d total amount, including - in the products);

The absolute exclusion of NaCl is not applied, because of - disorders in renal function, secondary aldosteronism and persistent edema;

The total fluid intake/day: 0.5-0.6 l during decompensation and 1.2-1.5 l - during compensation;

Strict and prolonged restriction of fluids leads to thirst, constipation, risk of intoxication.


- Control of exogenous food import of cholesterol-rich animal foods (0.5-1.0 g/d);

-Endogenously synthesized cholesterol is important (3.5–4.0 g/d);

PNMK (linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic) . in sunflower, soybean, corn, rapeseed, fish oils lower serum cholesterol;

-Phospholipids (lecithin) counteract the deposition of cholesterol on the vessel walls.

- Lipotropic factors - choline, methionine have an antiatherogenic effect;

-Refined sugar and NMK-rich food are risk factors



Sample diet







  1. Cottage cheese whipped with yogurt

  2. 2 slices of ham

  3. Cucumber slices

  1. Cabbage and carrot salad

  2. Warmed by vegetables

  1. Green salad with cucumbers

  2. Chicken fillet with zucchini


  1. cheese 1 slice

  2. Sliced ​​cucumber and carrots

  1. Salad of tomatoes, cucumbers, and roasted peppers

  2. Soup balls without construction and without noodles and potatoes with vegetable carrots, zucchini, cauliflower

  1. Green salad with cucumbers

  2. Baked trout with broccoli


  1. 3 slices of fillet

  2. A slice of cheese

  3. Sliced ​​cucumber and carrots

  1. Cabbage and carrot salad

  2. 2. Vegetables with mushrooms in the oven

  1. Green salad with cucumbers

  2. Beef tas kebab, vegetable puree without potatoes


  1. 4 sausage slices

  2. Tomato 2 pcs.

  3. 2 pcs. sliced ​​carrot

  1. Tomato salad

  2. White meat chicken steak, 3 roasted peppers

  3. Vegetable soup without construction

  1. Green salad and cucumbers with tuna and 2 boiled egg whites

  2. Baked zucchini


  1. 2 slices of cheese

  2. 1 boiled egg

  3. 2 pcs. sliced ​​carrot

  1. Moussaka with vegetables without potatoes with 80 g minced meat topped with egg

  2. Green salad with cucumbers

  1. Cabbage and carrot salad

  2. Chicken fillet with green beans


  1. 3 sausage slices

  2. roasted pepper 2 pcs.

  3. 1 slice of cheese

  1. Salad of tomatoes, cucumbers and roasted peppers

  2. 2. Soup balls with vegetables, carrots, zucchini, cauliflower

  1. Green salad with cucumbers

  2. White fish with baked vegetables


  1. 3 slices of fillet

  2. a slice of cow's cheese

  3. Cucumbers

  1. Carrot salad with 1 tbsp. pumpkin seeds

  2. Stewed chicken fillet, vegetable puree

  1. Chinese cabbage and cucumber salad

  2. Rabbit with vegetables and mushrooms in the oven





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