Irrational Nutrition And Its Influence On The Development Of Various Pathologies At An Early Age

Time for reading: ~24 minutes Last Updated: August 28, 2022
Irrational nutrition and its influence on the development of various pathologies at an early age

Poor nutrition is the cause of more than 80 different diseases. Especially great is the detrimental effect of poor nutrition in early childhood, when there are intensive growth processes and the formation and improvement of many organs and systems.

Poor nutrition is the cause of more than 80 different diseases. Every third person (both an adult and a child) suffers from various ailments caused by malnutrition, and among the dead, a significant part falls victim to malignant tumors and cardiovascular diseases, the development of which is largely caused by malnutrition. Therefore, malnutrition is becoming an increasingly common and serious problem in our reality.

Especially great is the detrimental effect of poor nutrition in early childhood, when there are intensive growth processes and the formation and improvement of many organs and systems. Improper nutrition has a certain negative impact on the development of the brain, the intelligence of the child and the functional state of his central nervous system.

Improper nutrition from the first days of a child's life contributes to a drop in the body's resistance to various adverse environmental factors, lowers the level of its immunological reactivity, and as a result is the cause of a number of nutritional disorders of the child (dystrophy, anemia, etc.).

The issues of children's nutrition have always been of concern to pediatricians and have been the subject of constant study.

Doctors are well aware that proper rational nutrition is one of the mandatory conditions on which the psychophysical health of a person depends. A healthy person is the key to a healthy society. Proper nutrition that provides the intake of all the nutrients necessary for the body (and there are more than 60 of them) in the right amount and appropriate proportions is necessary throughout our lives. Its determining value is in childhood.

Numerous studies conducted by both domestic and foreign experts show that even minor nutritional disorders at this age lead to serious deviations in health. The way children eat affects their further physical, intellectual and emotional development, the ability to perceive new knowledge, academic success.

However, despite the relevance of the problem, it is not sufficiently studied. Serious research into the problems of malnutrition was carried out back in Soviet times. There are practically no modern works devoted to this problem. Only separate articles and methodological guides appear, which contain only some recommendations on rational nutrition. All this information is not systematized and not summarized.

A modern medical worker is forced to independently seek the principles of proper rational nutrition, to pretend their life in his practice, without having a serious scientific and methodological support.

The purpose of this study is to study the problem of malnutrition and its impact on various pathologies in early childhood.

To achieve the goal, the following tasks were set:

1. Consider the problem of poor nutrition.

. To reveal the influence of irrational nutrition on the development of pathology in early childhood.

. Analyze various diseases caused by poor nutrition.

. Develop a number of recommendations for the organization of rational nutrition.

In the course of work on this topic, we used the following groups of sources:

1. Monographs devoted to the problem of nutrition of children at an early age;

2. Textbooks devoted mainly to issues of various pathologies caused by poor nutrition;

. Internet sources containing extensive material, both on the problem of nutrition and various diseases at an early age.

In the process of working on the research topic, we used such methods as the study of sources and scientific literature, analysis of theoretical material, observation and generalization.

This course work consists of an introduction, three chapters, a conclusion and a list of references.




The concept of malnutrition (PREMIUM)


It is difficult to give a precise definition of malnutrition. Malnutrition is an imbalance between the needs of the body and the actual level of nutrient intake, which in turn leads to the development of nutritional deficiency syndromes, food addiction, food poisoning or obesity.

Malnutrition includes both undernutrition, in which nutrients are supplied in insufficient amounts, and overeating, in which nutrients are supplied to the body in excess. In other words, malnutrition is an unbalanced diet characterized by too low or too high nutrient intake.

Irrational nutrition of young children is one of the key factors in the deterioration of their health at an older age, including the cause of the development of various diseases. At the same time, only 26% of mothers, according to the survey, are concerned about the balanced nutrition of their child, while the rest did not realize that it may lack the elements necessary for its growth and development, such as iron or calcium.

The daily diet of more than half of Russian children aged 1 to 3 years is not balanced and does not meet the recommendations of the "Norms of Physiological Requirements for Energy and Nutrients for Various Population Groups of the Russian Federation". This is confirmed, in particular, by the results of the all-Russian study Nutrilife, conducted in 2011-2012. on the initiative of the Nutricia company with the participation of more than 2 thousand children and 40 medical institutions.

According to the study, doctors themselves do not pay enough attention to the nutrition of young children. If in the first year of life with almost every mother the doctor talks about nutrition, then in the second year of life only with 5 out of 10 mothers, which, in fact, is one of the causes of various kinds of pathologies in early childhood, the prevention of which has not been given due attention from both parents and doctors.


Pathologies at an early age caused by irrational nutrition (PREMIUM)


Improper nutrition is one of the main causes of various pathologies in young children. With poor nutrition in children, various organs and systems can be affected. Consider some of the possible pathologies associated with poor nutrition.

Poor nutrition can lead to chronic eating disorders.

Dystrophy is a chronic disorder of nutrition and tissue trophism that disrupts the correct harmonious development of the child. The most common forms of dystrophy are malnutrition and paratrophy.

Hypotrophy is a chronic eating disorder with a lag in body weight in relation to length. The disease is characterized by a delay in physical and neuropsychic development, a decrease in immunity.

There are congenital and acquired malnutrition. Congenital malnutrition is associated with the impact on the fetus of adverse factors. Acquired malnutrition occurs after birth under the influence of a variety of exo-endogenous causes. One of the main exogenous causes is alimentary disorders (unbalanced diet, food that does not match the age of the child, underfeeding, etc.). Endogenous causes of development are congenital malformations, some hereditary, endocrine, immunodeficiency diseases, CNS damage.

clinical picture. Distinguish with the degree of malnutrition. Hypotrophy I degree is detected only on close examination. The general condition of the child is satisfactory. Appetite is moderately reduced. Children are restless, characterized by increased excitability, unstable emotional tone. The skin is pale. Tissue turgor is reduced. The subcutaneous fat layer is thinned on the abdomen, but preserved on the face and extremities. The body weight deficit is 10-20% compared to the norm. Growth corresponds to age.

Hypotrophy II degree is accompanied by a decrease in emotional tone. The child loses cheerfulness, becomes lethargic and apathetic, sleeps poorly, the development of psychomotor functions and speech is delayed, appetite is clearly disturbed. Force-feeding causes vomiting. The skin is pale, dry. Skin elasticity and tissue turgor are reduced. The skin easily gathers into folds, muscle hypotension is pronounced. The subcutaneous fat layer is preserved on the face, thinned on the abdomen, trunk and extremities. The body weight deficit is 21-30%. Growth is reduced by 2-4 cm. Fluctuations in body temperature can reach one degree Celsius or more. Immunity is reduced, which leads to the occurrence of infectious and purulent diseases that proceed sluggishly and torpidly.

Hypotrophy III degree (atrophy) is characterized by significant violations of the general condition. The child is indifferent to the environment, tearful, irritable. There is a sharp delay in development, loss of acquired skills and abilities, anorexia. The skin is dry, pale gray in color, hanging in folds on the buttocks and thighs. Subcutaneous fatty tissue is absent on the face, trunk and extremities. In appearance, the child resembles a skeleton covered with skin. Tissues completely lose turgor. Muscle atrophy and flexor hypertonicity develop. The body weight deficit is more than 30%. The length of the body lags behind the age norm by 5-6 cm or more. Signs of polyhypovitaminosis and dehydration are expressed (a large fontanel sinks, the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, conjunctiva and cornea dry out, the amount of urine and feces decreases, blood thickens). Body temperature is reduced children are prone to hypothermia. The chair is unstable. Immunity is sharply reduced, inflammatory diseases proceed latently, without fever and often give complications.

With congenital malnutrition, various disorders of the central nervous system functions are noted. A child is born with low rates of physical development. The lag of body weight from height in newborns is determined by assessment tables, taking into account gestational age or by weight and height, which is calculated by the formula: body weight (g): body length (cm) * 100%. In a normotrophic, the weight-to-height indicator is 60 - 80%, with hypotrophy of the I degree - 60 - 56%, II degree - 55 - 50%, III degree - below 50%.

Paratrophy is a disease characterized by excess weight. Most often, the disease is caused by an unbalanced diet, for example, the predominance of flour and dairy products in the baby's diet, as well as a lack of vitamins. As a rule, the disease is typical for children under the age of three, especially if the body weight does not correspond to the normal rate by 10% or even more.

clinical picture. A child suffering from paratrophy is adynamic, lethargic. He quickly gets tired, with active movements often there is shortness of breath, tachycardia. There is an instability of emotional tone. There is a tendency to lag psychomotor development. The skin and mucous membranes are pale, pasty, the child is loose, excessively pronounced subcutaneous fat layer is often unevenly located. There is a decrease in tissue turgor and muscle tone. Appetite is selective, food tolerance threshold is lowered. The chair is unstable, often plentiful, liquid, frothy, with a sour smell. Children are predisposed to acute respiratory infections, obesity. In the event of a disease, it takes on a sluggish and prolonged course.

Also, poor nutrition can cause the development of diseases of the hematopoietic system. The most common disease is iron deficiency anemia.

There are a number of prerequisites for the formation of iron deficiency, primarily related to the fact that the need for iron, especially at an early age, many times exceeds the possibilities of its intake into the body. The body of a young child is on the borderline of iron deficiency, which not only serves the purpose of hemoglobin formation, but is also used by the tissues of a growing organism. Iron deficiency is most at risk for children aged 6-18 months, when the rate of iron use increases.

Iron deficiency anemia is a disease in which the iron content in the blood serum, bone marrow and depot decreases, the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells is disrupted.

One of the reasons for the development of iron deficiency anemia is insufficient intake of iron and other trace elements, as well as proteins, vitamins with food (one-sided feeding with cow or goat milk, late introduction of complementary foods, mainly carbohydrate and vegetable diets).

clinical picture. For a long-term iron deficiency at a hemoglobin level below 80 g/l, "epithelial", asthenoneurotic, cardiovascular, hepatolienal and immunodeficiency syndromes are characteristic, manifested in isolation or combined with each other.

"Epithelial" syndrome is characterized by pallor of the skin, auricles and mucous membranes; dryness and flaking up to ichthyosis and skin pigmentation; dystrophy of hair and nails, asymptomatic dental caries; anorexia, perversion of smell and taste; angular stomatitis, atrophic glossitis, gastritis, duodenitis, disorders of digestion and absorption up to the onset of symptoms of malabsorption; regurgitation, nausea, vomiting, unstable stools; often hidden (occult) intestinal bleeding.

Asthenoneurotic syndrome is manifested by increased excitability, irritability, emotional instability; gradual lag in psychomotor and physical development; lethargy, apathy, fatigue, in severe cases, negativism; older children have headaches, dizziness.

Cardiovascular syndrome is accompanied by shortness of breath, palpitations, a tendency to hypotension, tachycardia, muffled tones, a functional nature of systolic murmur, an increase in ejection and left ventricular hypertrophy; on the ECG - signs of hypoxic and dystrophic changes in the myocardium; extremities are constantly cold.

Hepatolienal syndrome of varying severity is observed in most patients, especially with concomitant protein and vitamin deficiencies and active rickets.

The syndrome of reduced local immune defense, caused by damage to regenerating barrier tissues, is manifested by frequent acute respiratory viral infections and pneumonia (2.5-3 times more often than in healthy people) and the early onset of chronic infectious foci.

With improper nutrition, young children often develop diseases of the musculoskeletal system, such as rickets.

Rickets is a disease of young children, in which, due to vitamin D deficiency , calcium-phosphorus metabolism, the processes of bone formation and mineralization are disturbed.

The main factor in the development of rickets is hypovitaminosis D , which occurs due to insufficient intake of vitamin D from food or as a result of a violation of its formation in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet rays.

The rickets clinic is characterized in the initial period by severe symptoms from the nervous system, especially the autonomic department. Increased nervous excitability appears: sleep disturbance, anxiety, fearfulness, irritability. Characterized by increased sweating, persistent red dermographism. The scalp sweats especially strongly, as a result of rubbing the sweaty head against the pillow, a characteristic early symptom appears - baldness of the back of the head. This is the initial period of rickets. During this period, there is a decrease in phosphorus in the blood, an increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and acidosis. By the end of the initial period (after 2-4 weeks), compliance of the skull bones appears, forming the edges of the large fontanel, and along the sagittal and lambdoid sutures.

The next period in the clinic is a peak period, characterized by an increase in symptoms from the central nervous system, bone tissue, muscle hypotension, the appearance of symptoms of disturbances in the activity of internal organs, the hematopoietic system, delayed teething and psychomotor development.

With rickets of the I degree in a child of 3-4 months on the head with an acute course of rickets, the symptom "craniotabes" appears. It is caused by thinning of the inner surface of the bones and softening of the areas of the parietal or occipital bones, with subacute rickets - frontal and parietal tubercles. With rickets of the 1st degree, which began in a child at the age of 4-6 months, symptoms from the chest predominate - these are “costal beads” (thickening at the point of transition of the cartilaginous part of the rib to the bone). Expansion of the lower aperture and narrowing of the upper one; compression of the chest from the sides; "Harrison's groove" (retraction of the chest at the site of attachment of the diaphragm). With rickets of the 1st degree, muscle hypotonia is expressed. Psychomotor development is not impaired.

With rickets of the II degree (moderate severity), changes in the ANS are expressed, symptoms from the skeletal system increase, muscle hypotension is expressed, an increase in the liver, changes in other internal organs are observed.

In addition to the symptoms described above, the following are observed: deformation of the sternum - "chicken breast" (keeled protrusion of the sternum) or "shoemaker's chest" (pressure of the sternum inward). In a subacute course, the curvature of the bones of the forearm, "bracelets" (thickening in the area of ​​the wrist joints), "strings of pearls" (thickening in the diaphysis of the phalanges of the fingers); kyphosis in the lower thoracic spine. The child has significantly pronounced muscle hypotension and weakness of the ligamentous apparatus of the joints; the abdomen is large, “froggy”, the divergence of the rectus abdominis muscles, the “jackknife” symptom (the legs are easily pressed against the head, while the child does not feel anxiety); motor skills develop late. From the side of the cardiovascular system: tachycardia, muffled heart tones, a functional systolic murmur at the apex can be heard. Increasing the frequency of breathing. An increase in the size of the liver, there may be an increase in the spleen. Hypochromic anemia is expressed, in the genesis of which deficiency of iron and amino acids plays a role. There is a delay in the formation of static functions, a decrease in motor activity and an age-related delay in psychological development. The content of phosphorus and calcium in the blood is reduced, alkaline phosphatase is increased.

With rickets of the III degree (severe) - an increase in symptoms from the nervous system (lethargy, lethargy, a sharp mental lag), pronounced deformations of almost all parts of the skeletal system, including those of the lower extremities ("saber-shaped" curvature of the hips forward and outward, O - or X-shaped curvature of the legs; deformities in the joints); flat pelvis. The gait becomes "duck", flat feet develop, a sharp hypotension of the muscles (loss of motor skills). Enlargement of the liver and spleen, symptoms of dysfunction of the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory systems. Severe hypochromic anemia.

The clinic of rickets is determined not only by the severity, but also by the nature of the course. There is an acute course with the rapid development of symptoms of the disease, with a predominance of signs of softening of the bones (craniotabes, laterally flattened head, flattening of the occiput, chest compressed in the lateral sections, curvature of the bones of the legs). In an acute course, the initial period quickly turns into a peak period. An acute course is observed in premature babies and those born with a large body weight, in children of the first six months of life, during an infectious disease, in children who are rapidly gaining body weight.

The subacute course is characterized by a gradual and slow increase in the symptoms of the disease with a predominance of excessive formation of osteoid tissue (protrusion of the frontal and parietal tubercles), a "square" head shape, costal beads, "rachitic bracelets" and "strings of pearls" on the hands. In a subacute course, the transition from the initial period to the peak period is delayed in time. Subacute course is more often observed in children with malnutrition and the second half of life; it can also be in children of the first half of the year, if they were used for the prevention of rickets, but not enough.

The relapsing course is characterized by the change of periods of improvement by periods of exacerbation of the rickets process, which is associated with the addition of infectious diseases, with incorrect and insufficient treatment of rickets; with the termination of treatment and the absence of anti-relapse prevention of rickets.

After a period of peak at I, II and III degrees, a period of convalescence begins, which is characterized by the reverse development of symptoms of rickets, the disappearance of symptoms from the nervous system, teething, restoration of motor functions, the disappearance or decrease in clinical manifestations of impaired functions of various organs and systems.

In cases of severe rickets in children after 2-3 years, a fourth period can be observed - residual effects of rickets. In this period, bone deformities are noted: “square head”, depression or protrusion of the sternum (“cobbler’s chest” or “chicken chest”), compression of the chest from the sides, flat pelvis, curvature of the limbs, defects in teeth and jaws.

Improper nutrition can cause diseases of the digestive system. We examined such a disease as acute gastritis.

Acute gastritis is an acute inflammation of the gastric mucosa.

The most common cause of gastritis in young children is malnutrition. Frequent changes in the mixture of "artists", incorrect, irrational and untimely introduction of complementary foods - all this gives a strong load on the child's stomach.

Also, the cause of an acute illness in children is most often a variety of alimentary errors: violation of the diet and diet; binge eating; taking a large amount of unusual food (spicy, smoked, spicy, fatty foods); eating very cold (such as ice cream) or hot food; the use of unripe fruits, berries; intake of poor-quality or hard-to-digest foods.

The most common signs of acute gastritis are: abdominal pain, a feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the epigastric region, chills, general malaise, headache, nausea, and fever.

Acute gastritis often makes itself felt at night. If errors were made in the child's diet during the day, he suddenly wakes up from a feeling of a full stomach, abdominal pain and nausea. After vomiting, the baby feels relief. However, you still need to show the child to the doctor. On examination, the child is pale, the tongue is covered with a white-yellow coating, flatulence is detected. Palpation of the abdomen is painful in the epigastric region. In the following days, lethargy and malaise persist. In mild cases, the baby recovers in 1-3 days. In more severe cases, with untimely assistance, if the diet is not followed, recovery can be delayed and even develop into a chronic form.


Conclusion about Irrational nutrition (PREMIUM)


When compiling a balanced diet for children, one should be guided by certain standards of needs for basic nutrients, vitamins and minerals and energy.

All parents want their child to benefit from nutrition so that he grows up physically and mentally healthy, so it is very important to feed him in all the right ways.

The ideal food for a baby of the first year of life is breast milk - natural and easy to digest, sterile and heated to the optimum temperature. It best meets the needs of the baby's body in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and trace elements. Women's milk contains more than a hundred vital ingredients.

The body of a nursing mother is sensitive to all the needs of her baby, so the composition of breast milk is optimal for a particular child, the composition of breast milk changes as the baby grows, the nutritional components adapt to the needs of the child, his condition.

Mother's milk, on the one hand, itself has protective properties, and on the other hand, it stimulates the development of the baby's own immune system. Due to the fact that mother's milk contains immunological substances, babies get sick less, and if they get sick, the disease is mild and they recover quickly. In addition, breastfed babies tolerate vaccines well.

If for some reason a woman cannot breastfeed her baby, this is not an insoluble problem. The development of science has led to the fact that modern milk formulas are almost identical in composition to breast milk, although they are not ideal for all babies.

Most mixtures are prepared on the basis of cow's milk using special technological methods. This takes into account all the main components - proteins, fats, carbohydrates and vitamins. In order for artificial food to resemble breast milk in terms of fat component, milk fat is replaced with a mixture of vegetable oils (corn, rapeseed, soybean, palm, coconut or sunflower). To adapt the carbohydrate component, lactose (milk sugar) is added to the substitutes, which contributes to the development of a favorable intestinal flora.

Modern artificial mixtures enrich with all the necessary vitamins, minerals and trace elements, including iron, zinc, iodine and others. However, they are not able to fully replace mother's milk, unfortunately.

A few months after the birth of the baby, the time comes for the introduction of complementary foods, the beginning of accustoming the child to adult food.

It is possible to understand that it is time to introduce complementary foods into the baby’s diet, according to several basic criteria: the child’s interest in adult food, the ability to sit confidently, the appearance of the first teeth.

During the introduction of complementary foods, a number of recommendations should be followed:

- the consistency of the first complementary foods should be semi-liquid so that the baby does not have difficulty swallowing new food;

- after the baby has become accustomed to semi-liquid and well-mashed food, you can begin to give him thicker food;

- each new complementary food should be introduced gradually, starting with very small portions;

- when introducing a new product or complementary food, you should carefully monitor its tolerance to the child; if an infant develops allergic reactions or bowel dysfunction, stop giving him this complementary food.

Between the ages of 1 and 3, children transition from breastfeeding to adult nutrition. This is due to their growth, improvement of the structure of organs and systems, activation and differentiation of physiological functions.

First of all, in children of the second year of life, significant changes occur in the digestive system: the capacity of the stomach increases, all salivary glands form and begin to function actively, and the chewing apparatus develops. By the age of 1, the child already has 8-10 teeth, and by the age of 2, he has molars. This allows you to introduce into the children's diet food that requires chewing.

The formation of the liver and pancreas at an early age is not yet complete, and therefore it is necessary to spare these organs. To do this, it is important to choose the right products and process them accordingly.

For children over 1.5 years old, mashed food is replaced by a denser one. At 2.5 years old, it's time to introduce the baby to the family table. Everything that is useful for a child of this age is also useful for adults.

All food groups should be used in baby food. During the week, the child's menu should contain meat and meat products, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, bread, cereals, pasta, vegetables, fruits, confectionery; it is useful to vary different foods throughout the day; the presence of hot dishes during each meal is a prerequisite; cold dishes and dry food disrupt digestion; the fewer components in the dishes, the simpler they are, the less the load on the liver, stomach and intestines. The adequacy of nutrition with this approach, its variety is achieved by continuous, from meal to meal, change of products, and not by taking a little of everything in one sitting.

A proper diet plays an important role in the development of a child of any age, but it is especially necessary for young children who have not yet developed the necessary skills and stereotypes in nutrition.

The diet provides for the observance of certain intervals between individual meals, its quantitative and qualitative distribution throughout the day.

For a child older than a year, as a rule, 4 meals a day are established, at set hours. Nutritionists believe that it is necessary to set the hours of feeding and strictly observe sufficient intervals of time between them.

If you adhere to the correct diet of the child, his stomach will fully digest food, and then timely and completely empty. In addition, compliance with the diet increases appetite and contributes to the proper functioning of the digestive glands.

Young children cannot fully meet their energy needs only during the main feeding. That is why snacking is so important. In the intervals between meals (about 1.5-2 hours after eating), you should give your child fruits, cheese, crackers with juice, raisins, carrots.

It is very important to make the right menu for the child. With a varied diet and the right ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, the absorption of food is more complete. When compiling the menu, try to diversify the dishes during the day as much as possible.

In order to meet the child's needs for basic nutrients, vitamins and mineral salts, it is important to provide the required amount of products, take into account their quality and usefulness for the child's body and determine the optimal ratios in the daily diet.

The necessary amount of food should be provided, which is determined by the age of the child and the anatomical and physiological characteristics of his digestive organs.

The importance of separate nutrition is important, which takes into account the compatibility of various products with each other and avoids violations of the digestive process and the occurrence of many diseases in the future.

In the diet of children under 3 years of age, it is not recommended to use:

• dishes from an adult table with excess fat, salt, spices;

• spicy pickles, sauces, seasonings, factory-made ketchups and mayonnaises, smoked meats, pickled foods, mustard, horseradish;

• canned food not intended for baby food and semi-finished products;

• crispy fried flour and meat products;

• carbonated sweet drinks;

• chips and other products in single-use packages with a long shelf life, replete with unhealthy preservatives and synthetic colors;

• sausages, meat and fish in vacuum packaging,

• dumplings from a pack;

• strong tea;

• natural coffee;


• chocolate.

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