Trans Fats Benefits and Nutrition Facts

Published on: 01/06/2022

High-containing Trans Fats Foods

Nutrient Content Reference
Culinary fat for baking and confectionery, based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil 42.851 43
Soybean oil (partially hydrogenated), for the food industry 34.162 34
Soybean oil (partially hydrogenated) and palm oil, for the food industry, for the manufacture of glazes and fillers 31.228 31
Soybean oil (partially hydrogenated) and cottonseed, for the food industry, for tortillas 30.809 31
Canola oil (rapeseed) partially hydrogenated, industrial, for deep frying 27.017 27
Confectionery fat 80% for puff pastry, based on cotton and partially hydrogenated soybean oils 24.747 25
Confectionery fat 80% for baking, making sauces and candies, based on partially hydrogenated soybean oil 20.578 21
Confectionery fat 71% for puff pastry, based on cotton and partially hydrogenated soybean oils 19.068 19
Margarine mixed with butter, 80% fat, based on soybean oil 14.95 15
Margarine, 80% fat, with salt, with vitamin D, in a pack 14.89 15
Margarine, 80% fat, with salt, in a pack 14.89 15
Margarine, 80% fat, based on corn and soybean oils 14.89 15
Margarine, 80% fat, without salt, in a pack 14.89 15
Margarine (spread) based on soybean oil, 70% fat 14.786 15
Cooking fat for frying on the basis of partially hydrogenated soybean and corn oils 13.784 14
Soybean oil (partially hydrogenated), for the food industry, for popcorn and flavored vegetables 13.555 14
Cooking fat, homemade, from a mixture of vegetable oils 13.164 13
Soybean oil (partially hydrogenated), for the food industry, flavored with butter 12.927 13
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 60% fat, with salt, with vitamin D, stick 12.731 13
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 60% fat, with salt, stick 12.731 13
Cooking fat (shortening) for frying, liquid, on the basis of partially hydrogenated soybean oil 12.574 13
Soybean oil (partially hydrogenated and frozen), for the food industry, for clean frying 10.755 11
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 60% fat, with salt, with vitamin D. 7.374 7
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 60% fat, with salt 7.374 7
Margarine, 80% fat, with salt, with vitamin D, in a plastic box 5.827 6
Margarine, 80% fat, with salt, in a plastic box 5.827 6
Milk substitute, powder 5.541 6
Hydrogenated palm kernel oil, for the food industry, fat filler 4.658 5
Hydrogenated palm kernel oil, for the food industry, for the manufacture of whipped creams 3.68 4
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 60% fat, with salt, with vitamin D, tub 3.664 4
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 60% fat, with salt, tub 3.664 4
Biscuits, plain or with low-fat cream (buttermilk), frozen dough, fatty 3.444 3
Butter 81% fat, salty 3.278 3
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 67-70% fat 3.265 3
CONTINENTAL MILLS, KRUSTEAZ Almond mixture with poppy seeds, with artificial flavors, dry 2.7 3
Butter whipped 78.3% fat, salted 2.669 3
Vegetable oil, low in fatty acids 2.577 3
Margarine (spread), "Super Light" by SMART BEAT, without fatty acids 2.45 2
Beef, sausages, pre-cooked 2.42 2
Margarine (spread), "Light Spread" by BENECOL 2.214 2
Breadcrumbs, bread made from dry mix 2.07 2
Beef, minced meat, 70% lean meat / 30% fat, raw 1.82 2
McDONALD'S, pancakes (with two balls of butter and syrup) 1.788 2
Canola oil (industrial), industrial, for salads, wok and light frying, purchased 1.771 2
ENOVA oil for cooking and salads, 80% diglycirides 1.762 2
Margarine (spread) based on vegetable oil, 37% fat, with salt, with vitamin D. 1.687 2
Sausage, beef 1.66 2
Pie, mini, with cream, air 1.621 2
Canola oil (industrial), industrial, non-foaming 1.618 2
Pepperoni (spicy salami), pork, beef 1.527 2

Nutrition Facts About Trans Fats

Fats, Carbohydrates, Fruits, Vegetables: How Much To Eat To Be Healthy

A recent large cohort study found that fats (both saturated and unsaturated) may not be as harmful as previously thought. Carbohydrates can have a more damaging effect, but they should still be consumed in moderation, and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is a must.

A large cohort study called Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) conducted by the McMaster University Population Health Research Institute in Canada has paved the way for a better understanding of a healthy, balanced diet.

The study collected data on 135,335 people between the ages of 35 and 70 from 18 different countries on five continents, covering the Middle East, South America, Africa, China, North America, Europe and South Asia.



Participants were asked to provide detailed information about their socioeconomic status, lifestyle, medical history, weight, blood pressure, and other important factors. Observation of the participants lasted an average of 7.4 years. In addition, relevant information on cardiovascular diseases and the risk of death was collected.

Recently, PURE data were used in two additional studies that looked at the effects of macronutrients, especially fats and carbohydrates, on human health and life expectancy, and the global importance of fruit and vegetable consumption.

The first study, lead by Dr. Mahshid Dehgan of McMaster University, found that diets that contained moderate amounts of fat and little to no carbohydrates were associated with a lower risk of death. An article detailing the study was recently published in The Lancet.

Moderate consumption of fat is good for the body


The purpose of this study was to analyze data on participants' daily eating choices and habits, as well as other relevant information, to calculate how much energy was gained from fat, carbohydrate, and protein intake in each case.

A surprising finding that appeared to contradict existing beliefs about a healthy diet was that high total fat intake, which provides 35.3 percent of energy, was associated with a significantly lower risk of death (23 percent lower), compared to low fat intake.

At the same time, it was found that a high level of carbohydrate consumption, which provides 77 percent of energy, increases the risk of mortality by 28 percent.

Total fat intake did not significantly affect the risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality, and carbohydrate intake was not associated with cardiovascular disease at all.

The researchers say these findings vary by country, cultural influences and may be related to the income level in each country.



A decrease in fat intake automatically leads to an increase in carbohydrate intake. Thus, the study's findings explain why some populations, such as South Asians, who do not consume a lot of fat but consume a lot of carbohydrates, have a higher mortality rate.

Three to four servings of vegetables a day



The second paper, also published in The Lancet, and lead by Victoria Miller, a postdoctoral fellow at McMaster University, builds on the findings of the first by looking at the importance of fruits, vegetables and legumes in the human diet.

Based on relevant PURE data, Miller and her colleagues calculated how many servings of fruits, vegetables, and legumes the participants consumed on a regular basis.

One serving was defined by the researchers as 125 grams of fruit or vegetables or 150 grams of cooked legumes, as recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture.

Potatoes, other tubers, legumes, fruit and vegetable juices were not included in the research results. Legumes included beans, black beans, lentils, peas, chickpeas, and black-eyed peas.

Researchers have found that three to four servings of fruits and vegetables a day significantly improve health.

Our study found the lowest risk of death among those who consumed three to four servings (375 to 500 grams) of fruits, vegetables and legumes per day. In addition, the consumption of fruits brought more benefits to the body than the consumption of vegetables.

The role of nutritional characteristics in different countries


Miller and her team also noted that at the global level, three to four servings of fruits, vegetables and legumes per day is at odds with government recommendations of five servings per day of these foods.

The researchers suggest that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables a day may be out of reach for people in many low- and middle-income countries, where these foods are expensive. This especially applies to the regions of South Asia, China, Southeast Asia and Africa.

The fact that the study was conducted with participants from five continents, the researchers say, gives additional credibility to the results, suggesting that plant-based diets are more beneficial for health.

The PURE study includes populations from previously unstudied geographic regions, and the diversity of populations only adds to the significance of the study's findings, confirming that a plant-based diet reduces the risk of many diseases.


Another important conclusion of Miller and her team was that raw vegetables are healthier than cooked ones, which is usually not indicated in dietary recommendations around the world. Researchers say that the debate about the benefits of "raw" and "cooked" vegetables also affects the specific features of the diet of different countries.

Eating raw vegetables is strongly associated with a lower risk of death compared to eating cooked vegetables. But raw vegetables are rarely eaten in South Asia, Africa and Southeast Asia. Although the dietary guidelines do not distinguish between the benefits of raw and cooked vegetables, the results of the study indicate that it is worth emphasizing the benefits of consuming unprocessed vegetables over processed ones.



The Most Dangerous Fats: How They Affect Health


Fats are as important to your diet as proteins and carbohydrates are to fueling your body with energy. Some bodily functions also depend on the presence of fat. For example, some vitamins require fat to dissolve in the bloodstream and provide nutrients.

What is meant by bad fats

Some fats have been linked to negative effects on heart health, but others have been found to have health benefits.

Foods and oils contain a mixture of fatty acids, but the predominant type of fat they contain makes them more or less healthy.

What fats are less useful?

Two types of fat - saturated fat and trans fat - have been identified as potentially harmful to your health.


Most foods containing these types of fats remain solid at room temperature, such as:

  • butter;

  • margarine;

  • Coconut oil;

  • beef/pork fat.

Trans fats should be avoided, and saturated fats should be eaten in moderation.

The most saturated fats are animal fats. They are found in high-fat meats and dairy products.

Sources of saturated fats include:

  • fatty cuts of beef, pork and lamb;

  • dark chicken meat and poultry skin;

  • fatty dairy products (whole milk, butter, cheese, sour cream, ice cream);

  • tropical oils (coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa butter);

  • salo.

Eating too much saturated fat can raise your blood cholesterol and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.


Traditionally, doctors have associated higher intakes of saturated fats with an increased risk of heart disease.

More recently, this idea has been challenged.

According to Harvard University, researchers now believe that saturated fat may not be as bad as previously thought, but it's still not the best choice for fat.

After a review of 15 randomized controlled trials, we concluded that replacing the saturated fats in your diet with polyunsaturated fats can reduce your risk of heart disease.

While the risk reduction is small, these differences can make a difference to your health.

How healthy fats can become unhealthy

Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are considered more "heart-healthy" fats. These are the fats that are best for your diet.

Monounsaturated fats are found in a variety of foods and oils.

Research consistently shows that eating foods containing monounsaturated fats can improve blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. These products include:

  • nuts (almonds, cashews, peanuts, pecans);

  • vegetable oils (eg olive oil);

  • avocado.

Polyunsaturated fats are known as "essential fats" because the body cannot produce them and must obtain them from foods. The main source of this fat are vegetable products and oils.


A certain type of this fat, called omega-3 fatty acids, is especially good for the heart.

The following types of foods contain omega-3 fatty acids:

  • salmon;

  • herring;

  • sardines;

  • trout;

  • walnuts;

  • linseeds and oil;

  • chia seeds.

In addition to omega-3 fatty acids, you can find polyunsaturated fats in the following foods that contain omega-6 fatty acids:

  • tofu;

  • walnuts;

  • seeds (sunflower, pumpkin seeds, sesame);

  • vegetable oils (corn oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil).

Foods that primarily contain these healthier fats tend to be liquid at room temperature.

In what cases do the listed products lose their useful properties?

They are not recommended for frying and consumed in large quantities. Fried foods contain significantly more fat and calories than their non-fried counterparts.

As another example, a 100-gram fillet of baked cod contains 105 calories and 1 gram of fat, while the same amount of deep-fried fish contains 232 calories and 12 grams of fat.

As you can see, when eating fried foods, calories accumulate quickly.

Harm of fish oil

The health benefits of both fish oil and cod liver oil are due to their high content of omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids support many body systems and can prevent a number of diseases. The human body cannot make its own omega-3 fatty acids, so you need to include them in your diet.

The fatty acids in fish oil are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These omega-3 fatty acids are the "good oils" that everyone should include in their diet.

Some plant sources (such as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oil) contain another type of omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). It has not been proven to be as beneficial as fatty acids from fish oil.


If you don't eat two to three servings of (not fried) fish a week, you may find it helpful to take fish oil or cod liver oil supplements.

Both fish oil and cod liver oil may cause minor side effects.

Discuss this with a healthcare provider before giving your child any supplements.

It is not known whether fish oil or cod liver oil is safe for people with fish and shellfish allergies.

Cod liver oil can:

  • cause belching;

  • cause bleeding from the nose;

  • cause heartburn;

  • make the blood thicker.

Do not take cod liver oil if you are pregnant.


Fish oil can cause:

  • problems with blood clotting or nosebleeds;

  • nausea;

  • liquid stool;

  • rash;

  • indigestion and fishy belching;

  • decreased levels of vitamin E.

When it comes to supplements, good isn't always better. Too much omega-3 fatty acids in any form can have dangerous side effects.

You can visit the National Institutes of Health's Supplement Label Database if you want to research a specific brand.

If you don't need these extra vitamins, take fish oil only.

Fish oil or cod liver oil with food, especially fatty foods, can help you better digest and absorb omega-3 fatty acids.

What are trans fats and how do they affect health?

Natural trans fats are produced by bacteria in the stomach of cattle, sheep, and goats. These trans fats make up 3–7% of the total fat in dairy products such as milk and cheese, 3–10% in beef and lamb, and only 0–2% in chicken and pork.

On the other hand, artificial trans fats are mostly formed during hydrogenation, a process in which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to form a semi-solid product known as partially hydrogenated oil.

Partially hydrogenated oils were first used in food preparation in the early 20th century as a substitute for butter, and became more common in the 1950s and 70s due to the discovery of the negative health effects of saturated fatty acids. Partially hydrogenated oils are used primarily in the preparation of deep-fried fried foods, as well as in baked goods; in both cases, they can be replaced by other substances.

Although the evidence is limited, natural trans fats are less harmful than artificial ones.

For example, the FDA ban on trans fats went into effect on June 18, 2018, products manufactured before that date may be sold until January 2020 or, in some cases, until 2021.

In addition, foods containing less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving are labeled as containing 0 grams of trans fat.

WHO recommends that total trans fat intake should not exceed 1% of total calories, which is less than 2.2 g per day for a 2,000 calorie diet.


Trans fats increase LDL cholesterol, a known biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk, and lower HDL cholesterol, which transports cholesterol from the arteries to the liver, where it is converted into bile.

A diet high in trans fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 21% and mortality by 28%. When trans fats are replaced with unsaturated fatty acids, the risk of cardiovascular disease is reduced, in part by mitigating the negative effects of trans fats on blood lipids. In addition, there are suspicions that trans fats can increase inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

Since 2018, six countries have introduced restrictions on industrially produced trans fatty acids, and another 24 countries have introduced regulations that will come into force within the next two years. However, more than 110 countries still do not have regulations restricting the use of these harmful compounds, which means five billion people are at risk of consuming industrially produced trans fats in their daily diet.


Actions are planned to achieve global phase-out by 2023. WHO has also released a set of step-by-step REPLACE modules that provide specific guidance to countries on how to reduce industrial trans fats in foods and save lives.

“The movement to phase out industrialized trans fats globally is gaining momentum, with almost a third of the world's population in 28 countries already protected from their harmful effects,” said WHO Director-General Dr TedrosAdhanom Ghebreyesus. “However, more than two-thirds of the world's population is not protected from the presence of industrial trans fats in their diet. WHO stands ready to support phase-out efforts in other countries. We applaud the industry's commitment to product reformulation and the elimination of trans fats."

The European Union, building on existing best practices, introduced a regulation in 2018 to exclude industrially produced trans fats from food. The regulation will come into effect by 2021.

Implementation of measures to limit trans fats has begun in more than 40 countries.

So while food companies are reducing trans fats in their products, some products still contain artificial trans fats. To reduce your intake, it is best to read the ingredient lists carefully and limit your consumption of the foods listed below.

Foods high in unhealthy fats

  1. Popcorn is a popular and healthy snack

    It is high in fiber but low in fat and calories.

    However, some varieties of microwaveable popcorn contain trans fats.

    Food companies have historically used partially hydrogenated oil to cook popcorn in the microwave due to its high melting point, which keeps the oil solid until the popcorn bag is microwaved.

    Notably, due to the recognized health risks of trans fats, many companies have switched to oil without trans fats in recent years.

    If you prefer to cook in the microwave, choose brands and flavors that do not contain partially hydrogenated oil. Alternatively, cook popcorn on the stovetop.


  2. Margarines and vegetable oils

    Some vegetable oils may contain trans fats, especially if the oils are hydrogenated.

    Because hydrogenation hardens the butter, these partially hydrogenated oils have long been used to make margarine. Therefore, most of the margarines on the market were high in trans fats.

    However, be aware that some non-hydrogenated vegetable oils may also contain trans fats.

    Two studies that analyzed vegetable oils, including canola, soybean, and corn, found that 0.4–4.2% of total fat was trans fat.

    To reduce your intake of trans fats from margarine and vegetable oils, avoid foods containing partially hydrogenated oils, or opt for healthier oils such as extra virgin olive oil or coconut oil.


  3. Fried fast food

    When eating on the go, be aware that trans fats can be hidden in some takeout options.

    Fried fast foods such as fried chicken, battered fish, hamburgers, french fries, and fried noodles can be high in trans fats.


    The trans fats in these foods can come from several sources.

    First, restaurants and takeout chains often fry food in vegetable oil, which can contain trans fats that are absorbed into the food.

    In addition, the high cooking temperatures used during frying can lead to a slight increase in the oil's trans fat content. The trans fat content increases each time the same oil is reused for frying.

    It's hard to avoid trans fats from fried foods, so it's best to limit your intake of fried foods altogether.


  4. Bakery products

    Baked goods such as muffins, cakes, pastries, and donuts are often prepared using vegetable fat or margarine.

    Vegetable oil contributes to a more puffy and soft dough. It is also cheaper and has a longer shelf life than butter or lard.

    Until recently, both vegetable fat and margarine were made from partially hydrogenated oils. For this reason, baked goods have traditionally been a common source of trans fats.

    Today, as manufacturers reduce the amount of trans fats in their butter and margarine, the total amount of trans fats in baked goods has also decreased.

    However, it cannot be assumed that all baked goods do not contain trans fats. It's important to read labels whenever possible and avoid baked goods containing partially hydrogenated oils.

    Even better, make homemade cakes to control the ingredients.


  5. Other sources

    Trans fats can also be found in smaller amounts in a number of other foods, including:

    • Potato and corn chips: While most potato and corn chips are now free of trans fats, it's important to read the ingredients as some brands still contain trans fats in the form of partially hydrogenated oil.

    • Cakes and buns: This is due to the presence of partially hydrogenated oil, which forms a soft crust. Pay attention to this ingredient on the label.

    • Pizza: Trans fats can be found in some brands of pizza dough due to the partially hydrogenated oil. Keep an eye on this ingredient, especially on frozen pizza.

    • Baking Icing: Mainly made up of sugar, water and butter.

    • Crackers, cookies, waffles, cream cakes, candies and other confectionery products.


Milk fat substitute: harm and possible benefits

What does milk fat replacer (BMF) mean? It is a mixture of several vegetable oils that are pre-refined and well processed. The production process is carried out under the influence of high temperature and using a catalyst. As a result of their interaction, olein is formed, which is able to replace milk fats.

For the manufacture of ZMZH, oils such as:

  • Sunflower

  • corn

  • Palm

  • coconut

  • soybean

  • Rapeseed


Sunflower and corn oils are used in Russia more often than others. These are proven products, the quality of which is known to many. Exotic oils cause strong distrust in the domestic market. However, the raw materials used have no effect on the properties of the MMF. Some manufacturers mix several types of oils, which will not affect its benefits.

What are the similarities and differences between HMF and natural milk fat? Products have different composition and quality characteristics. These indicators determine the degree of their use in some areas of the food industry. Visually, the properties of products can be analyzed using a table.



milk fat

Thyroid-stimulating hormone,%






Solid fat,%



Monounsaturated fatty acids,%



Polyunsaturated fatty acids,%



Palmitic acid,%



Melting point, hail



Cholesterol, %

up to 50

As can be seen from the table, the products have a different fatty acid balance.

The composition of the milk fat substitute is stable, does not contain cholesterol, which in excess can cause chronic pathologies in the human body. However, it has a high specific gravity of fatty acids. These indicators indicate that HMF is more nutritious than a natural product.

The melting point of the product is higher, which allows it to be used for the production of ice cream. It is able to retain taste, aroma and texture for longer under a variety of conditions.

Despite a number of advantages, there are some negative points when using a substitute for milk fat. The harm of a product depends on the factors that make it dangerous to consume.

Palm oil, consumed in excess, is considered a carcinogen, clogs the body with toxins. According to RF Legislation No. 163, palm oil is prohibited for use in its pure form in Russia.

HMF does not contain palm oil, but olein, which is safe to use. However, products that contain it are best not to use in the children's diet. The product promotes the excretion of calcium from the body.

Harm is noted in the abuse of products containing ZMZH.

According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, a restriction has been introduced on its permissible amount in products: no more than 50%. We recommend that you carefully read the composition of the goods.

Why is visceral fat dangerous?

Most of the fat in our body is under the skin. This is fat that can be squeezed or pinched on the arms, abdomen, thighs, and buttocks.

A certain amount of body fat is normal and healthy, but too much fat can lead to imbalanced hormone levels.

Too much white fat, especially visceral fat, can be detrimental to your health. Visceral fat can increase the risk of the following diseases:

  • stroke;

  • cardiac ischemia;

  • atherosclerosis;

  • pregnancy complications;

  • type 2 diabetes;

  • hormonal disorders;

  • some types of cancer.


Visceral fat is a type of fat that is stored in the abdominal cavity. It is located near several vital organs, including:

  • liver;

  • stomach;

  • intestines.

It can also accumulate in the arteries.

Visceral fat is sometimes referred to as "active fat" because it can actively increase the risk of serious health problems.

If you have belly fat, it's not necessarily visceral fat. Belly fat can also be subcutaneous fat, which is stored just under the skin.

Visceral fat is found inside the abdomen and is difficult to see.

People with excess belly fat are at increased risk, even if they look thin.

How is visceral fat diagnosed?

The only way to definitively diagnose visceral fat is with a CT scan or MRI. However, these are expensive and time-consuming procedures.

Instead, healthcare providers usually use general guidelines to evaluate your visceral fat and the health risks it poses to your body.

According to a study, about 10 percent of all body fat is visceral fat. If you calculate your total body fat and then take 10 percent of it, you can estimate the amount of visceral fat.

The easiest way to determine if you have a health problem is to measure your waist.

According to the Harvard School of Public Health T.H. Chana, if you are a woman and your waist is 85 cm or more, you are at risk of health problems due to visceral fat.

Men are at risk of health problems if their waist is 100 cm or larger.

You cannot measure visceral fat percentage at home.

However, you can determine your waist to hip ratio (WHR).

According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, a waist-to-hip ratio greater than 0.85 for women and 0.90 for men indicates abdominal obesity.

It also increases the risk of metabolic complications such as diabetes.

You can also use the waist height ratio (WHtR).

It was considered a more reliable indicator than WHR, body mass index (BMI) and body shape index (ABSI).

A large waist circumference was also closely associated with a high percentage of visceral fat.

To calculate WHtR at home, simply divide your waist circumference by your height. You can measure in centimeters as long as you measure your waist and height in the same units. The ideal WHtR is usually less than 0.50.

How to eat to reduce visceral fat

Visceral fat is extremely susceptible to:

  • exercises;

  • diet.

For every kg you lose, you lose some visceral fat.

Practice for at least 30 minutes every day if possible. Be sure to include cardio and strength training.

Cardio includes aerobic exercises such as:

  • circuit training;

  • a ride on the bicycle;

  • run.

Such workouts will burn fat faster.

Strength training will gradually burn more calories as your muscles get stronger and consume more energy.

Ideally, do 30 minutes of cardio 5 days a week and strength training at least 3 times a week.

While burning fat in this area can be difficult, there are a few things you can do to reduce excess belly fat.

Top 10 Scientifically Backed Nutrition Tips to Lose Belly Fat

  1. Eat plenty of soluble fiber

    Soluble fiber absorbs water and forms a gel that helps slow the passage of food through the digestive system.

    An observational study of over 1,100 adults found that for every 10 grams of increase in soluble fiber intake, belly fat gain decreased by 3.7% over a 5-year period.

    Excellent sources of soluble fiber include:

    • flax-seed;

    • Brussels sprouts;

    • avocado;

    • legumes;

    • blackberry, etc.


  2. Don't drink alcohol

    Observational studies have linked excessive alcohol consumption to a significantly increased risk of fat accumulation around the waist.

    One study of alcohol use involved more than 2,000 people. The results showed that those who drank alcohol daily but drank less than one drink a day on average had less belly fat than those who drank less frequently but consumed more alcohol on the days they drank.


  3. Eat a high protein diet

    Protein increases the metabolic rate and helps maintain muscle mass during weight loss.

    Many observational studies show that people who eat more protein tend to have less abdominal fat than those who eat a low protein diet.

    Be sure to include a good source of protein in every meal, such as:

    • meat;

    • fish;

    • eggs;

    • whey or vegetable protein;

    • beans.


  4. Don't eat a lot of sugary foods

    Sugar contains fructose, the overconsumption of which has been linked to a number of chronic diseases.

    Observational studies show an association between high sugar intake and increased abdominal fat.

    It is important to understand that not only refined sugar can lead to an increase in belly fat. Even healthier sugars like real honey should be consumed in moderation.


  5. Reduce your intake of carbohydrates, especially refined ones

    Reducing your carbohydrate intake can be very beneficial for burning belly fat.

    You don't have to follow a strict low-carb diet. Some research suggests that simply replacing refined carbs with unprocessed starchy carbs can improve metabolism and reduce belly fat.

    According to the famous FraminghamHeartStudy, people with the highest intake of whole grains were 17% less likely to have excess abdominal fat than those who ate a diet high in refined grains.


  6. Eat oily fish

    Some evidence suggests that omega-3 fats may also help reduce visceral fat.

    Studies in adults and children with fatty liver disease show that fish oil supplements can significantly reduce liver and abdominal fat.

    Try to get 2-3 servings of oily fish per week. A good choice:

    • salmon;

    • herring;

    • mackerel.


  7. Don't drink fruit juice

    Although fruit juice contains vitamins and minerals, it contains just as much sugar as sodas and other sweetened drinks.

    Eating large amounts may carry the same risk of increasing abdominal fat.


    A 240 ml serving of unsweetened apple juice contains 24 grams of sugar, half of which is fructose.

    To reduce excess belly fat, replace fruit juice with water, unsweetened iced tea, or water with a lemon or lime wedge.


  8. Use coconut oil

    In one study, obese men who took coconut oil daily for 12 weeks lost an average of 2.86 cm from their waist without intentionally changing their diet or exercise regimen.

    Keep in mind that coconut oil is very high in calories. Instead of adding extra fat to your diet, replace some of the fat you already eat with coconut oil.


  9. Eat probiotic foods or take probiotic supplements

    To reduce the stomach, add the following strains of bacteria: Lactobacillusfermentum, Lactobacillusamylovorus and especially Lactobacillusgasseri.

    Probiotic supplements usually contain several types of bacteria, so make sure you buy one that contains one or more of these bacterial strains.


  10. Try intermittent fasting

    One popular method involves 24-hour fasting once or twice a week. The other consists of fasting every day for 16 hours and eating all food in an 8 hour period.

    In a review of studies on intermittent fasting and every other day fasting, people experienced a 4-7% reduction in abdominal fat over 6-24 weeks.

    While some modified intermittent fasting methods seem like better options, stop fasting immediately if you experience any negative effects.


Conclusion: Limit bad fats in your diet, carefully read the composition of industrial products. Instead, eat a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats, and lean protein. 


Breakdown Of Fats In The Body: Features Of The Process


Fats are organic compounds that are esters of glycerol (polyhydric alcohol) and three fatty acids. Their other name - triglycerides (or less common - triacylglycerides) just reflect the biochemical features of their structure.

It is important to understand that triglycerides can not only be ingested with food, but are also quite successfully formed in the multifunctional factory of the liver, as well as in adipose tissue.

Functions of fats in the body

    1. Energy - from the point of view of the accounting of a prudent organism, this particular class of compounds is the most profitable source of energy: 1 gram of fat when burned in industrial furnaces of mitochondria gives 9 kilocalories - 2 times more than proteins and carbohydrates.

      Let us turn to biochemistry: the sequential process of converting glucose (first to pyruvic acid, and then, subject to the presence of oxygen, to acetyl-CoA, a universal product of the metabolic transformations of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, the final raw material, which, in fact, will go further conveyor belt for energy production, the inclusion of acetyl-CoA in the Krebs cycle and the final stage - the transfer of electrons and protons through special respiratory chains of mitochondria): at the output it gives 38 ATP molecules, while triglycerides - more than 300-400 (depending on the type included in their fatty acid structure).

      Economical, rational and relatively cheap - an ideal option. Ideal, but NOT universal.

      After the intestines, the next stop for already individual elements (in particular, fatty acids) will be blood - a universal water slide that delivers the nutrients they need to the cells. However, in serum, these organic molecules do not circulate in a free form, but in complex with plasma proteins - albumin - large and heavy. It is not surprising that these compounds simply cannot pass through, overcome the barrier that separates the blood in the vessels from the nervous tissue of the brain. The blood-brain barrier remains impermeable for them, which means that the brain will not be able to use this type of raw material for energy.

      In addition, an important condition for the oxidation of fatty acids is the presence of mitochondria - in fact, those furnaces in which they will burn. And here, too, lies an important nuance: after all, not all cells of the human body have these organelles. So, for example, erythrocytes are deprived of them, therefore the only mechanism for obtaining energy for them is anaerobic (occurring in oxygen-free conditions) glycolysis, and glucose will be the substrate for it.

    2. Structural - fats are one of the key structural units of cell membranes (everyone remembers the bilipid layer from school lessons). In addition, they are part of many tissues - including the nervous one.

      So, ½ of the dry residue of the white matter of the brain is precisely lipids. The myelin sheath of the nerves, which provides an isolated and fast conduction of an impulse along the nerve fibers, also consists to a greater extent of fats (moreover, cholesterol occupies 90% of their total amount).

    3. Thermal insulation - help maintain a constant temperature and prevent hypothermia due to its low thermal conductivity.


  1. Protective - protect internal organs from mechanical damage, act as a shock absorber during falls, bumps, and movement (for example, fatty tissue of the foot).

  2. They are a substrate (in particular, cholesterol) for the formation of sex hormones, adrenal hormones, vitamin D, bile acids, signaling molecules, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators.

  3. They serve as a necessary condition for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K.

  4. Reserve - a kind of energy airbag. In specialized fat cells (adipocytes) they are stored in large droplets.

  5. Fats are a source of endogenous water. When 1 kg of fat is oxidized, about 1.1 kg of water is released - that is why, contrary to popular misconception, the ships of the desert - camels - store not water in their humps, but fat.

Types of fats

According to the biochemical structure, all lipids are divided into two groups:

  1. Simple - their molecule includes carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C, H, O).

    This group just includes triglycerides, as well as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, waxes and other compounds.

    Fatty acids can be irreplaceable - that is, their formation by the body is impossible, therefore the only sources of income are food products and biological additives, as well as replaceable - just our body can synthesize them on its own.

  2. Complex - in the structure of which, in addition to the three elements listed above, there are others - as a rule, phosphorus, nitrogen or sulfur (P, N, S).

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are one of the most commonly prescribed supplements. So, according to analysts, by 2022 the total profit from their sales will bring more than $4 billion.

They are synthesized from the essential alpha-linolenic acid - thus, the body can get it only with food or nutraceuticals - and have double (“unsaturated”) bonds between carbon atoms. Among them, the most interesting are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids.

Fish is traditionally considered the main source of omega-3s, although they are also found in eggs, milk and vegetables.

Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown in many studies (although the literature on this topic is rather inconsistent) to be associated with anti-inflammatory effects - and in this respect they are completely antagonistic to omega-6s.


In a clinical trial involving 20 healthy middle-aged volunteers, people took a high daily dose of a mixed DHA/EPA supplement for 8 weeks, both in capsule form and with a functional drink rich in these omega-3 fatty acids. The use of the latter, as noted later, had a much greater impact on the gut microbiome. In particular, there was a significant increase in bacterial strains producing butyrate, one of the most common (along with acetate and propionate) short-chain fatty acids present in the intestinal lumen as end products of dietary fiber fermentation by resident bacteria. The importance of their presence is associated with the anti-inflammatory ability of these organic substances.

The antimicrobial properties of fatty acids largely depend on the length of their chain, on the presence and spatial orientation of double bonds. At the same time, it is emphasized that it is unsaturated fatty acids that show a similar effect to a greater extent than saturated fatty acids with the same carbon chain length.

Scientists note that omega-3 fatty acids can change the composition of the bacterial microflora and increase the number of bifidobacteria - the latter reduce intestinal permeability.

In addition to the anti-inflammatory effect, researchers also note the effect of omega-3 PUFAs on the neurotransmission of serotonin and dopamine by changing the composition of phospholipids and, as a result, the fluidity of cell membranes. It is believed that this may underlie the development of not only somatic, but also mental diseases in conditions of deficiency of these organic compounds. Evidence of this was impressive findings: levels of omega-3 fatty acids were significantly reduced in the red blood cells of patients suffering from depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and schizophrenia. These results form the basis of the American Psychiatric Association's recommendations, as the specially created Subcommittee on Fatty Acids provides the following guidance: "Patients with mood disorders

Omega 6 fatty acids

Omega-6 PUFAs are formed from linoleic acid, which, like alpha-linolenic acid, is indispensable. They differ from omega-3s only in the location of the double bond - and this small difference in functional terms plays a huge role.

The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable oils: sunflower, corn and safflower. Gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acids are formed from it in a number of further biochemical transformations - the latter, by the way, will be the raw material for the production of inflammatory signaling molecules: prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

Some authors believe that in the process of evolution, people adhered to an equal ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in their diet - approximately 1:1. Now, in the modern Western diet, this ratio is 20:1 - and all because of the increased content of omega-6 in food.

Such an excess content of omega-6 PUFA contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases, increases the incidence of oncology, and affects the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.

However, this does not mean that omega-6 fatty acids should be eliminated from the diet: for example, the use of evening primrose oil, rich in gamma-linolenic acid, correlated with an improvement in the course of atopic dermatitis.

Moreover, the same acid in the composition of borage seed oil was used to treat various degenerative diseases and at the same time it was noted that it did not have toxicity to DNA (in Drosophila models), increased the lifespan of these insects, and pronounced antioxidant effects.

The use of borage oil was also effective in the context of lowering cholesterol levels in the blood serum - these effects are supposedly based on increased oxidation of fatty acids in rat liver peroxisomes (organelles), increased activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (mitochondrial enzyme, which is one of the representatives of carnitine transport systems that ensure the delivery of active fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix) and acyl-CoA oxidase, which is also involved in the metabolism of fatty acids.

Omega 9 fatty acids

Omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids have only one double bond. These include oleic, elaidic, midic and other acids, the main food sources of which are:

  • Olive oil

  • Avocado

  • Hazelnuts and walnuts

  • Peanut


Studies on their effects are quite controversial - for example, laboratory mice in which sepsis was induced by ligation of the caecum and its puncture were treated with omega-9 supplements for 14 days. They have been shown to be associated with increased levels of anti-inflammatory signaling molecules (particularly interleukin-10) and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1, beta) in peritoneal fluid; the migration of neutrophils from the blood into the abdominal cavity decreased, as well as the bacterial load. In addition, the use of omega-9 prevented an increase in the level of corticosterone (hormone of the adrenal cortex, which plays a minor role in humans, while

The essence of the process of splitting fats in the human body

In an adult body, fat breakdown begins in the small intestine - in particular, in the duodenum. At the first stage, it is bile that plays a key role - a golden-green secret synthesized by liver cells.

In response to the intake of fatty foods, the gallbladder contracts and bile is secreted into the intestinal lumen. It performs a number of important functions:

  • Activates pancreatic enzymes.

  • Emulsifies fats - they are mixed with water. In other words, a large, thick drop of fat is broken into small ones - this speeds up the process of splitting by pancreatic lipases.

  • Helps in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Neutralizes the acidic contents of the stomach.

  • Activates the motility of the small intestine.

  • Prevents excessive bacterial and fungal growth, has antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity.

The bile secreted by hepatocytes is 97% water - that's why an adequate drinking regimen is so important. The remaining 3% are bile acids, cholesterol, mucus (mucin) and phospholipids.

Bile acids - one of the most important components of bile - are formed by the biochemical transformation of cholesterol. Their pool is very limited - therefore, most of the intestine is absorbed back and enters the liver, a smaller part is excreted in the feces. In the process of their transformations, they also form complexes with two amino acids - taurine and glycine, the use of which has recently proven itself as an effective treatment and prevention of both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism disorders.


In the absence of adequate bile production (due to viral hepatitis / cirrhosis / metastases / non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) or in violation of its outflow, observed in various helminthiases (in particular, invasion by the liver fluke), cholelithiasis and / or SIBO, normal splitting and digestion of fats.

So, after emulsification, lipases (intestinal and pancreatic) are connected - they break down triglycerides into glycerol and three higher fatty acids - the latter are sent to the mitochondrial ovens, where they are included in a series of transformations in the energy production factory.

No less important from the point of view of the clinic is the fact that pancreatic lipase is the most delicate and fastidious enzyme secreted by pancreatic cells. Violations in its work, as a rule, occur the earliest in comparison with other adverse changes in the structure and function of this organ.

Where and why does fat accumulate?

There are two main types of adipose tissue:

  1. Subcutaneous fat layer. It is present in all parts of the body, but everywhere its volume is different. In a person of normal physique, subcutaneous fat is distributed more or less evenly throughout the body. But obese people can have a significant skew in the distribution of fat: as a rule, its volume increases faster on the abdomen, hips, legs, sometimes in the shoulders and neck.

  2. Visceral (internal) fat. It accumulates around the internal organs and is the most dangerous.

Features of fat metabolism in men and women

However, there are differences: in particular, the complexity and diversity of all processes in women compared to their simpler flow in men (compare this with a huge panel of buttons on one screen and a single lever on the second) is achieved, to a greater extent, precisely by cyclicality - the representatives of the fair sex have a successive change of conductors in the orchestra of hormones (at least, it should be normal).

Sex hormones play one of the leading roles in the mechanisms of adipose tissue deposition - they form the so-called female (due to its localization in the femoral-gluteal region) and male phenotypes.

Adipose tissue, as you know, along with the ovaries produces estrogens. It is not surprising that the classification of obesity even distinguishes such a type as gynoid - obesity according to the female type or pear type. A particularly striking example is middle-aged men with overweight - take a closer look at the predominant localization of adipose tissue in them: it accumulates in the chest, hips and lower abdomen.


Abdominal obesity is no less characteristic - it is often replaced by being characterized as a "beer belly" - and yet the issue of phytoestrogens in this common alcoholic drink has been raised repeatedly!

In adipose tissue, the aromatase enzyme is expressed, which catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In addition, it notes the presence of receptors for the latter.

Sex hormones directly regulate the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which breaks down triglycerides as part of their transport carriers in blood plasma (chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins), thereby affecting the level of fats in the blood and the risk of atherosclerosis.


In women, lipoprotein lipase obeys the commands of estrogens - and its activity is much higher and more effective in its manifestations in fat cells in the thighs and buttocks compared to subcutaneous fat in the abdomen.

After the onset of menopause (and the cessation, respectively, of the formation of hormones by the ovaries), fat is redistributed to the abdominal region due to a decrease in the activity of this enzyme and a decrease in the size of adipocytes in the femoral-gluteal region.

No less important is the effect of progesterone - its role becomes leading in the second, so-called "luteal" phase of the cycle. It competes for receptors with the hormones of the adrenal cortex (glucocorticoids) - and this is not surprising, given the original source of their synthesis (cholesterol) and the directly intertwined biochemical reactions of their formation.

Experiments on rats have shown that males have a much more stable diet, while the frequency and number of meals varied significantly throughout the cycle in females, and with surgical removal of the ovaries, they developed a condition such as polyphagia - a violation of eating behavior , characterized by increased appetite and a constant feeling of need for food. Moreover, the introduction of estradiol preparations eliminated these manifestations.

The exact mechanism of the interaction between estrogen and appetite regulation is not yet explained, but it is believed that this is partly due to the regulation by these hormones of the formation of leptin, which is responsible for the manifestations of satiety, in adipose tissue, as well as from the presence of receptors for it in the ovaries.

Assessment of disorders of fat metabolism

    1. Secretory pancreatic insufficiency - it must be taken into account that lipase deficiency develops earlier and is more pronounced (since the lack of pancreatic proteases is compensated by intestinal enzymes, and amylases that break down carbohydrates are compensated by intestinal and salivary amylases).

      It is recommended to select, together with a nutritionist, suitable enzymes - plant or animal.

    2. Violation of the synthetic function of the liver.

    3. Worm infestation - in particular, a liver fluke that enters the body, as a rule, along with unwashed greens, watered when grown from a pond or any other source of stagnant water. Clinical manifestations may include:

      • Hepatomegaly is an enlargement of the liver.

      • Nausea.

      • Vomit.

      • Urticaria.

      • Increased levels of eosinophils.

      • Weight loss.

      • Weakness and malaise.


      An interesting fact: despite the bactericidal properties of bile, representatives of nematodes, roundworms, have recently been increasingly found in the gallbladder, which once again speaks of their amazing ability to adapt to adverse conditions.

      In the bile ducts, in addition to parasitic worms, protozoa also like to settle - for example, amoeba.

    4. Lack of vitamin C - acts as a coenzyme in the hydroxylation reactions necessary for the synthesis of bile components.

    5. Gallstone disease - characterized by the formation of stones (cholesterol or pigment) in the gallbladder and / or ducts.

      Excess cholesterol is observed with excessive intake of carbohydrates from food, with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and leads to a decrease in bile flow.

    6. Violation of the processes of methylation (transfer of the CH3 group), which is necessary for the formation of phosphatidylcholine, the phospholipid component of bile.

  1. Deficiencies of taurine and glycine are usually accompanied by a violation of methylation reactions and the accumulation, as a result, of homocysteine.

  2. Violation of the integrity of the intestinal epithelium is another unfavorable factor affecting the deterioration of nutrient absorption in general.

  3. Failure of the hypothalamus, the conductor of all peripheral glands.

  4. Violation of the thyroid gland, reproductive system and pituitary gland.

  5. Jaundice, inflammation of the pancreas and other diseases.

  6. SIBO (bacterial overgrowth syndrome) - it is important to understand that with a decrease in the secretion of bile, which has bactericidal properties, the number of microbes in the intestine also increases, which, in the course of their development and metabolism, release gas - this contributes to a violation of the secretion of both pancreatic juice and bile ( (remember that both ducts open together into the duodenum).

Obesity score

  1. Clinical signs and symptoms:

    • Increase in body weight.

    • Fatigue and drowsiness.

    • Shortness of breath and snoring.

    • Varicose veins and hemorrhoids.

    • Sweating.

    • Acne.

    • Constipation.

    • Hyperandrogenism with its characteristic manifestations (hirsutism - excessive male pattern hair growth, anovulation, oily skin).

    • Erectile dysfunction in men.

  2. Laboratory diagnostics:

    • Fasting insulin >5-6 mmol/l.

    • Glucose on an empty stomach> 5.5 mmol / l.

    • Glycated hemoglobin - displays the average blood sugar for 3-4 months (life and circulation of red blood cells) > 6.5%.

    • Triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l.

    • LDL (low density lipoprotein)> 3 mmol / l.

    • HDL (high-density lipoprotein, anti-atherogenic) < 1 mmol/l in men and < 1.2 mmol/l in women.


Causes and consequences of lipid metabolism disorders

Causes of fat accumulation:

  1. Poor nutrition and excess food waste in the diet. “We are what we eat” is a golden axiom for those who want to have a beautiful, toned, and most importantly, healthy body.

    Why, if expensive, high-quality fuel is poured into cars - and everything is done so that they perform their specified functions longer and better, then our body should be an exception? It is always unpleasant, both financially and emotionally, to change an unusable part and fix problems that arise (especially if they affected a really important mechanism - for example, an engine), and you never know if you bought an original replacement or a fake.

    Leave 90% of your diet clean—make the majority of it fresh vegetables and fruits, meat, fish, seafood, and healthy sources of fat. The remaining 10% can occasionally account for refined sugars and sources of trans fats so beloved in the realities of the modern world. However, we are more than sure that your receptors, having adapted, will simply stop perceiving them as a treat.

    Do a little experiment: give up store-bought sweets for a short time - two weeks will be enough. Then break off a piece of milk chocolate and follow the immediate sensations: it will seem to you so sugary-sweet that it will cramp your teeth.

    It's all about dopamine and the reward system, which, like drugs, is affected by sugar. Dopamine is the hormone of lust and desire: we want something, we build castles in the air in our heads, and in response, it pushes us to action - take a stone and go hunting for a mammoth. But just like nicotine, alcohol, heroin, dopamine is never enough: the receptors adapt and demand more and more.

  2. Lack of physical activity. The notorious 10,000 steps a day is the rule that should hang on every refrigerator instead of “do not eat after 6 pm”.

    Moreover, try to evenly distribute the load (climb the stairs, not the elevator; walk, if possible, on foot from work; wash the floors in the apartment), and not “go out” all in one or two hours during the walk (although the latter, no doubt are also very important).

  3. Lack of sleep - 7-8 hours - this is the gold standard necessary to maintain the physiological functions of the body, the normal process of learning and memory, emotional stability.

  4. Non-observance of circadian biorhythms - it is necessary to go to bed no later than 22-23.00, when the peak of melatonin secretion begins - a powerful antioxidant and the main antagonist of the stress hormone - cortisol.

    In addition, many other hormones are tied to the sleep cycle: leptin and ghrelin, which are responsible for satiety and hunger, respectively, growth hormone (growth hormone with a powerful fat-burning function) and even TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone).

    When you do not get enough sleep, the likelihood of overeating is much higher - this is due to the previously mentioned leptin.

  5. A positive energy balance—in other words, you get more than you spend—is good in many ways, but not calories. The excess of incoming nutrients will be stored in the form of adipose tissue: after all, we all know how stingy and greedy the human body is in this regard.

  6. Polymorphism in the FTO gene (fat mass and obesity-associated) - it is believed that it affects the specific centers of hunger and satiety in one of the key brain structures - the hypothalamus.

Consequences of fat accumulation:

    1. Violation of the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and subsequent manifestations and disorders.

      So, vitamin A deficiency is accompanied by:

      • Decrease in twilight vision (with mild insufficiency) up to its complete loss (in more severe cases).

      • Follicular keratosis.

      • Decreased secretion of immunoglobulin class A.

      • Inhibition of growth of epithelial tissue.

      Symptoms and consequences of vitamin D deficiency:

      • Rickets in children and osteomalacia (softening of the bones) in adults.

      • Osteoporosis.

      • Autoimmune diseases.

      • Cardiovascular diseases.

      • Psychiatric disorders, in particular depression.

      • Obesity.

      Vitamin E deficiency is characterized by:

      • neurological disorders.

      • hemolytic anemia.

      • lipid peroxidation.

      Vitamin K deficiency leads to:

      • An increase in the duration of bleeding (more precisely, prothrombin time - an indicator of the functional activity of coagulation factors).

      • Deposition of calcium in soft tissues.

      • Violations of calcification of bones and teeth.

    2. The development of steatorrhea, characterized by an excess amount of fat in the stool.

    3. Syndrome of excessive bacterial and fungal growth (due to a violation and / or a decrease in the outflow of bile).

    4. Stone formation in the gallbladder and / or ducts (due to an increase in the concentration of cholesterol - so, normally, there should be at least 7 molecules of bile acids and at least 2 molecules of phosphatidylcholine per 1 molecule of cholesterol).

    5. Constipation (bile - a stimulant of intestinal motility).

    6. Nausea, belching, flatulence, bitterness in the mouth.

    7. Skin hyperpigmentation.

    8. Excess accumulation of copper is characterized by red hair and a Kaiser-Fleischer ring in the cornea.


  1. Headaches (especially in the temporal region are characteristic of cholestasis).

  2. The development of arthritis and other pathologies of the joints - bile acids are involved in the formation of synovial fluid (provides nutrition for the articular cartilage and acts as a shock absorber).

  3. Diseases of the kidneys and urinary system - excess body weight is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis (a pathology accompanied by the formation of salt stones). In addition, obesity triggers the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (leading to an increase in pressure, both arterial and directly inside the renal arterioles), as well as an increase in the permeability of the renal glomeruli and damage to the renal filter.

  4. Development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Fat Metabolism Assessment:

  1. Coprogram is a universal and relatively inexpensive analysis. Normally assessed:

    • Consistency - in violation of the metabolism of fats, there is a fatty stool sticking to the walls of the toilet.

    • Smell.

    • The color of feces - so, the dark color of the stool is observed when eating meat food; lighter - with a predominance of dairy and vegetable products. Colorless feces (acholic) - indicates a blockade of the biliary tract or a violation of bile secretion, often observed with obstructive jaundice. Red is a bright marker of bleeding from the lower intestines, and black (due to the oxidation of hemoglobin with hydrochloric acid) is from the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    • The reaction is normally neutral or slightly alkaline.

    • Blood.

    • Slime.

    • Muscle fibers (striated and non-striated).

    • Digested and undigested plant fiber.

    • Neutral fat is normally absent. Its appearance signals a lack of enzymatic function of the pancreas and / or a violation of bile secretion, or a decrease in its formation by liver cells.

    In children, the presence of small amounts of neutral fat may be a variant of the norm due to insufficient development of the digestive and enzymatic systems.

    • Fatty acids are one of the products in the reaction of fat breakdown under the action of lipases. Normally absent. Their presence indicates impaired absorption in the intestine due to pathologies in the outflow of bile or enzymatic insufficiency of the pancreas.

    • Soaps are formed when fatty acids bind to minerals. Also indicate a violation of the breakdown of fats.

  2. GGT (gamma-glutamyltransferase) - its increase is a very early marker of cholestasis (impaired bile outflow). This enzyme is found in the cells of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas - and when these organs are destroyed, it enters the bloodstream.

    It should be borne in mind that its indicators always increase with alcohol abuse.

  3. Alkaline phosphatase is another marker of bile flow disorders. Normally, it is increased during the period of active bone growth and in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy (due to bone and placental forms).

  4. Analysis of amino acids in urine: assessment of the concentrations of taurine, glycine and methionine.

  5. Indirectly, it can be judged by the assessment of parasitic invasion, based on the value of the following indicators:

    • Eosinophils.

    • Eosinophilic cationic protein.

    • Fecal analysis by PARASEP method (3 times with 7-day intervals).

  6. Assessment of bacterial growth in the small intestine.

Recommendations for compiling a daily diet

    1. Don't forget breakfast. Make your first meal as rich and balanced as possible—in other words, so that you don't remember to eat before dinner.

      The formula for an ideal breakfast: fats - up to 60%, protein - 20-40%, carbohydrates - 20%.

      Legumes, red fish or other fatty varieties (we recommend eliminating or minimizing river fish as much as possible due to the high degree of helminth infestation), shrimp, mussels, scallops, eggs and squid are an excellent source of protein.

      From carbohydrates, we recommend focusing on complex (which do not cause a sharp rise in glucose levels, and then the same strong decline): quinoa, buckwheat, brown rice, amaranth, gluten-free bread, millet, as well as vegetables (spinach and other leafy, broccoli , pumpkin, radish, tomatoes, cauliflower.

      Give preference to berries: strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries - they are rich in antioxidants and have a much more favorable effect on carbohydrate metabolism than sweet fruits.

    2. Eat enough fiber - it helps to fill you up faster and also prevents a sharp jump in glucose levels after eating. In addition, this is a kind of brush - a kind of broom invented by nature, cleansing the intestines.

      A minimum of 25-30 grams of dietary fiber per day is recommended. They are found in bran, almonds, legumes, vegetables and fruits, greens, cabbage, whole grain bread and berries.

    3. Remove all snacks: the most physiological is three meals a day (the only exceptions are women during lactation and athletes who are subject to exhausting and prolonged physical activity).

      Leave intervals between meals at least 4x-5 hours: give your cell receptors the opportunity to adapt from the relentlessly circulating in the blood when you receive any kind of insulin food.

    4. Work with the processes of methylation, which is necessary, in particular, for the formation of bile phospholipids.

      As a laboratory diagnostic, you can check such an indicator as HOMOCYSTEIN, or pass the genetics of the folate cycle and see the presence or absence of polymorphisms in three genes: MTHFR, MTR, MTRR.

      In addition, other symptoms of a violation of this biochemical process will be high levels of histamine (an inflammatory mediator).

      Recommended Supplements:

      • S-adenosylmethionine is the main donor of methyl groups (400-800 mg).

      • Methylcobalamin is the most metabolically active form of vitamin B12 (1000-2000 mg).

      • Methylfolate (5-10 mg).

      • Magnesium (800-1200 mg).

      • Riboflavin-5-phosphate (50-100 mg) is the active form of vitamin B2.

      • Pyridoxal-5-phosphate - is involved in the conversion of B2 to its active form.

    5. Add vegetable enzymes - they are much more stable under the influence of various temperatures and pH of digestive juices. And no, the pancreas will not "get lazy" and will not stop producing its own. Papaya is great.


    1. If you have bacterial or fungal overgrowth syndrome, reduce the amount of incoming sugars—in particular, eliminate fruits, cereals, dairy products, prepared sauces, candies, cakes, and various sweeteners.

    2. Eat enough protein - at least 120-130 grams per day.

    3. Drink courses (although many experts recommend on an ongoing basis) phospholipids (in particular, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine), as well as omega-3 fatty acids.


  1. Add sources of pro- and prebiotics - start fermenting foods, and not just limited to cabbage.

Products that accelerate the process of splitting fats in the body

  1. Ginger. Ginger water has been used to treat rats - the animals showed a decrease in serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as a decrease in average weight gain. In addition, the expression of one of the specific glucose transporters (GLUT2) was activated, as well as the secretion of adiponectin in adipose tissue, a hormone involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

  2. Mustard (Sarepta / Russian) - Brassica juncea - a herbaceous plant widely used in Ayurveda as a medicine. Contains a large amount of polyphenols, vitamins, sterols and other biologically active components.

    It is also rich in isothiocyanate precursors, compounds with a wide range of beneficial effects, including antibacterial, antitumor activity, and modulation of fat metabolism.

    Mustard leaves have antioxidant activity: they trap free radicals. Moreover, their use is associated with protection against oxidative stress that accompanies diabetes.

    The extract has an anti-cataract effect and prevents the development of hyperglycemia (increased concentration of glucose in the blood serum) when exposed to toxic in relation to beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin, streptozotocin on the body of rats.

  3. Pomegranate has been used by Eastern medicine since ancient times - for example, in its peel there is a high concentration of tannins (molecules that have binding abilities and are therefore actively used as antidotes for poisoning with lead and mercury salts, as well as used as hemostatic agents), and the juice is rich in phenols and anthocyanins, which have an antioxidant effect.

    Pomegranate seeds are a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (particularly punicic acid).

  4. Grapefruit is perhaps the most effective helper in the fight against excess fat. It contains a high concentration of the flavonoid naringin (responsible for its bitter taste), which has a powerful choleretic effect and promotes the breakdown of fats that enter our body with food.

  5. Blueberries - An 8-week diet enriched with blueberries was associated with lower triglycerides and total cholesterol in obese rats and pigs. Similar changes were accompanied by the use of blueberry juice.


    It is believed that possible pathways involved in the regulation of dyslipidemia are associated with the expression of key enzymes involved in fat metabolism (lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthase).

  6. Cranberries (Vaccinium oxycoccos) are another great source of antioxidants, rich in quercetin and other flavonoids.

    It was shown that the extract of these berries reduced the division of precursors of fat cells, and also reduced the accumulation of fat in them. Cranberry directly induced lipolysis (fat burning process) and suppressed the formation of many factors of lipogenesis (that is, lipid synthesis).

  7. Grapes — their skin contains a polyphenol such as resveratrol, which reduces inflammation of adipose tissue, reduces the formation of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha), has a cardioprotective effect and lowers blood glucose levels.


  8. Pineapple is an excellent source of calcium, potassium, vitamins A and C. The pulp of fresh pineapple contains bromelain (a proteolytic enzyme), which acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, and also has a positive effect on patients with dyslipidemia. The phenolic compounds contained in this fruit inhibit oxidative enzymes in the cells of the human body, doing the work of antioxidants.

    A large amount of certain dietary fibers reduce the absorption of cholesterol - thus pineapple is effective in improving the severity of the course of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, this fruit has a very high fat-binding capacity.

  9. Raspberries - This ripe, sweet, and always associated with summer, berry has been shown to be effective in treating obesity in rodents.

    Various phenolic compounds (including and tannic acids) act as antioxidants in the fight against free radicals, as well as improve metabolic stability in overweight conditions.

    The extract of whole fruits has an antihypertensive effect and prevents the development of inflammatory processes.

  10. Cinnamon - Studies have shown that it improves the activity of tissue antioxidant enzymes in obese and diabetic rats. This spice reduces total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rodents.

    Also, the use of its aqueous extract for 12 weeks at a concentration of 250 mg / day reduced the content of malondialdehyde (formed during the degradation of PUFAs under the action of reactive oxygen species and thus serving as a bright marker of oxidative stress) and significantly increased the content of HDL (high density lipoprotein - antiatherogenic) in patients with impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

Diet for weight loss

As you know, water is the source of life: for example, most of our secrets and digestive juices consist of more than 90% of it.

The calculation of the daily requirement is very individual, but on average it is believed that for the normal functioning of the body, approximately 30 ml of pure water is required (and not in juices, soda, tea, coffee and soups) per 1 kg of weight daily.

Recent studies note its ability to reduce weight. According to German scientists, drinking at least 500 ml of water per day increases the rate of calorie burning by 30%.

A few important rules regarding the use of water:

  • waking up, drink one or two glasses of water, so you start the work of the digestive tract and the whole body;

  • drinking water should be about 15-30 minutes before meals to avoid a decrease in the concentration of gastric juice necessary for the digestion of food (although this issue is still being actively discussed by nutritionists and scientists)

  • drink small portions every hour;

  • be sure to drink while exercising in the gym;

  • if you feel hungry at an odd hour, just drink a glass of water - perhaps your appetite will decrease.

  • when edema appears, do not blame the water, but look for abnormalities in the functioning of the thyroid gland and / or the cardiovascular system.


Fats In Nuts: Top 10 Healthiest Nuts And Their Effect On Weight Loss

In the article we will tell:

  1. Nuts: fats, proteins, carbohydrates
  2. What are the benefits of nuts for losing weight
  3. Nut calorie table
  4. The most useful nuts: calories and nutritional value
  5. Features of nuts
  6. Is it possible to eat nuts while losing weight
  7. When is the best time to eat nuts?
  8. How many nuts can you eat per day
  9. Harm nuts

Nuts: fats, proteins, carbohydrates

Surely, you have heard more than once that nuts are a very healthy product. But, despite all their merits, many of us are confused by the calorie content of nuts and the content of saturated fats in them. Let's figure out how nuts are useful, whether you can use them for weight loss, how many nuts you can eat per day, and if nuts are harmful.

Let's get started with this product. Nuts are a healthy snack option and a great addition to many meals. They are good sources of fat, fiber and protein. Most of the fats in nuts are monounsaturated fats, as well as omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fats. However, they also contain some saturated fat. In addition, nuts contain a number of vitamins and minerals, including magnesium and vitamin E.


If you are afraid of the calorie content of nuts, and you are worried about whether it is possible to eat nuts for weight loss, here is the answer of science. A meta-analysis of 33 studies found that diets high in nuts did not significantly affect weight gain or loss.

On the contrary, many studies show the health benefits of nuts - especially in relation to reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

So, many of the scientific papers have shown that people who eat nuts live longer than those who do not. It is hypothesized that this may be due to their ability to help prevent a number of chronic diseases.

And the merits of nuts do not end there. They may also help reduce risk factors for metabolic syndrome such as high blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

There is even one study (on more than 1200 people) showing that the Mediterranean diet, combined with 30 gr. nuts per day reduced the prevalence of metabolic syndrome more than a low-fat or Mediterranean diet combined with olive oil.

But that's not all. Nuts have succeeded in reducing the risks of developing and other chronic diseases. For example, eating nuts can positively affect blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of certain types of cancer.

We discussed the benefits of nuts and see that they are really impressive. Now let's move on to the most controversial and exciting issue - their calorie content.

Yes, indeed, nuts are very high in calories. Mainly because most of them are fats. For understanding, one gram of fat contains 9 calories, while one gram of carbohydrates or protein contains only 4 calories.

In defense of nuts, they contain mostly unsaturated fats, and this type of fat has been linked to protection against many diseases, such as heart disease.

What are the benefits of nuts for losing weight

Since nuts contain a lot of calories and in particular fats, many people completely refuse them when losing weight. Let's see if this is correct. For this, we turn to current scientific data.

  • Several observational studies have shown that regular nut consumption is not associated with weight gain and may even prevent it.


  • One study followed the diet of 8,865 men and women for 28 months. It turned out that those who ate two or more servings of nuts per week had a 31% lower risk of weight gain, compared with those who did not eat nuts or ate them very rarely.


  • A review of 36 studies found that regular nut consumption was not associated with weight gain and body mass index.

  • A 2002 study suggested that the alpha-linolenic acid found in walnuts may be responsible for lowering LDL cholesterol levels in women.

    But it is worth noting that there were also studies that showed, albeit a small, but weight gain, when eating nuts:


  • For example, a study on the effects of regular peanut consumption found that it elicited a strong compensatory dietary response. The subjects compensated for 66% of the energy received from the nut, and the increase in body weight was significantly lower than predicted.


  • Here is another study, but with a walnut. It showed that walnut consumption led to significantly less weight gain than expected.


Here is a small conclusion: Studies have shown that regular consumption of nuts most often does not contribute to weight gain. If nuts do have an effect on weight, it is to a much lesser extent than expected, and in some cases even the opposite, contribute to maintaining and losing weight.

Nut calorie table

Let's look at the numbers. The table shows the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, as well as calories for different types of nuts.
















Cashew nuts





Brazilian nut















Pine nuts

























The most useful nuts: calories and nutritional value

We have estimated the calorie content of nuts in terms of numbers, and now is the time to get to know their nutritional value better. In addition to healthy vegetable fats, many nuts are rich in vitamins and minerals.

Top 10 Healthiest Nuts:

  1. Almond

    It is an incredibly nutrient-rich nut. One serving (28 grams or a small handful) contains:

    Calories: 161

    Fats: 14 gr.

    Proteins: 6 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 6 gr.

    Fiber: 3.5 gr.

    Vitamin E: 37% of the daily value.

    Magnesium: 19% of the daily value.

    Why else is almond a useful nut?

    • A number of small studies have shown that eating an almond-rich diet can possibly help lower “bad” LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol.


    • Another fact in favor of nuts for weight loss: almonds, consumed as part of a low-calorie diet, can help to lose weight and lower blood pressure in overweight or obese people. Almond Consumption during Energy Restriction Lowers Truncal Fat and Blood Pressure in Compliant Overweight or Obese Adults

    • In addition, eating one serving of almonds can help reduce post-meal sugar spikes by as much as 30% in people with diabetes. In healthy people, the effect will be less pronounced. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program

    • Almonds may help reduce inflammation in people with type 2 diabetes. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

    • May have beneficial effects on the gut microbiota by supporting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria, including bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans


  2. Walnuts

    Walnuts are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic).

    Calories: 182

    Fats: 18 gr.

    Proteins: 4 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 4 gr.

    Fiber: 2 gr.

    Vitamin E: 1% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 11% DV


    Why are walnuts healthy?

    • Several large studies have shown that eating walnuts significantly lowers total cholesterol and "bad" LDL cholesterol while increasing levels of "good" HDL cholesterol.


    • Improves a number of risk factors for heart disease. Effects of walnut consumption on endothelial function in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized controlled crossover trial

    • May help reduce inflammation that contributes to many chronic diseases.

    • A study in college students suggests that walnuts may have beneficial effects on the brain. Effects of walnut consumption on cognitive performance in young adults


  3. Pecan

    These nuts are often used in desserts, but they are quite nutritious on their own. One serving contains:

    Calories: 193

    Fats: 20 gr.

    Proteins: 3 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 4 gr.

    Fiber: 2.5 gr.

    Vitamin E: 2% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 8% DV

    • Several studies have shown that pecans can lower “bad” LDL cholesterol levels in people with normal cholesterol levels. Lower LDL-Cholesterol in Normolipidemic Individuals

    • In one four week study, people who ate pecans as 20% of their daily calorie intake saw improvements in blood antioxidant profiles. A pecan-enriched diet increases γ-tocopherol/cholesterol and decreases thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in plasma of adults


  4. Macadamia

    Macadamia nuts contain a wide range of nutrients and are an excellent source of monounsaturated fats.

    Calories: 200

    Fat: 21 gr.

    Proteins: 2 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 4 gr.

    Fiber: 2.5 gr.

    Vitamin E: 1% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 9% DV

    • Many of the health benefits of macadamia nuts are related to heart health due to their high content of monounsaturated fats.

    • A number of studies have shown that diets rich in macadamia nuts can lower both total cholesterol and "bad" LDL cholesterol in people with high cholesterol.


    • In addition, they may reduce other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and inflammation.



  5. brazil nuts

    Calories: 182

    Fats: 18 gr.

    Proteins: 4 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 3 gr.

    Fiber: 2 gr.

    Vitamin E: 8% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 26% DV

    • Brazil nuts are an incredibly rich source of selenium. Selenium is a mineral that acts as an antioxidant. A serving of Brazil Nuts provides more than 100% of the daily value of selenium.

    • Brazil nuts can also lower cholesterol levels and reduce oxidative stress in overweight teens. A single consumption of high amounts of the Brazil nuts improves lipid profile of healthy volunteers


  6. Hazelnut

    The hazelnut is also a very nutritious nut. One serving contains:

    Calories: 176 kcal.

    Fats: 9 gr.

    Proteins: 6 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 6 gr.

    Fiber: 3.5 gr.

    Vitamin E: 37% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 20% of the daily value


    • Hazelnuts are rich in healthy fats, fiber, vitamin E, manganese, and vitamin K.

    • Contains many antioxidants that help fight inflammation in the body. Effects of roasting on the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles of commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties

    • Rich in L-arginine, an amino acid that is a precursor to nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter that helps blood vessels relax and is important for heart health.


  7. Pine nuts

    Calories: 188 kcal

    Fats: 19 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 4 gr.

    Proteins: 4 gr.

    Fiber: 1 gr

    Vitamin E: 17% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 18% of the daily value

    • They are an excellent source of nutrients: especially rich in vitamin E, manganese, magnesium, vitamin K, zinc, copper and phosphorus.

    • Frequent consumption of pine nuts has been linked to lower levels of insulin resistance, lower blood sugar levels, reduced inflammation, and increased “good” HDL cholesterol. Tree Nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in US Adults: NHANES 2005–2010

    • Great for sprinkling on salads.


  8. pistachios

    Calories: 156

    Fats: 12.5 gr.

    Proteins: 6 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 8 gr.

    Fiber: 3 gr.

    Vitamin E: 3% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 8% DV

    • Pistachios have a higher ratio of essential amino acids than other nuts.

    • Pistachios can help lower blood sugar levels after eating. The impact of pistachio intake alone or in combination with high-carbohydrate foods on post-prandial glycemia

    • Reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease.


  9. Cashew nuts

    Calories: 155 kcal

    Fats: 12 gr.

    Proteins: 5 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 9 gr.

    Fiber: 1 gr.

    Vitamin E: 1% of the daily value

    Magnesium: 20% of the daily value


    • A diet containing 20% ​​of calories from cashew nuts may improve blood pressure in people with metabolic syndrome. Modulation of baroreflex sensitivity by walnuts versus cashew nuts in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    • Cashews increase the antioxidant potential of the diet. The effects of high walnut and cashew nut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome

    • However, several studies have shown that diets high in cashew nuts can increase blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome.


  10. Nutmeg

    Calories: 147 kcal.

    Fats: 10 gr.

    Proteins: 1.6 gr.

    Carbohydrates: 8 gr.

    Fiber: 5.8 gr.

    • Despite their small size, the seeds from which nutmeg is derived are rich in plant compounds that act as antioxidants in our bodies. Chemical diversity and pharmacological significance of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg

    • Rich in anti-inflammatory compounds called monoterpenes, including sabinene, terpineol, and pinene. They can help reduce inflammation in the body and benefit those suffering from inflammatory conditions.

    • It has an antibacterial effect against potentially harmful strains of bacteria. Antibacterial Activity of Myristica fragrans against Oral Pathogens


Features of nuts

Not all nuts are equally good for us. For example, you didn't see peanuts on this list of the healthiest nuts. And this is not an accident. Peanuts are actually not even a nut, they belong to the legume family. It also has one big disadvantage. Incorrect transportation and storage can lead to the growth of mold fungi and the appearance of aflatoxins - especially poisonous crops. They are strong carcinogens and are not even amenable to heat treatment. Therefore, peanuts are not on the list of the most useful nuts.


Nuts can also vary in carbohydrate content. Most of them fit well even in a low-carb diet, but, for example, cashews are high in carbohydrates: from 23-30 gr. per 100 grams. Therefore, you should not get carried away with cashew-based desserts, it is very easy to go over in carbohydrates and calories.

Is it possible to eat nuts while losing weight

You can eat nuts when losing weight, the main thing is to know your measure and not overdo it. Nuts are suitable for weight loss because they saturate well and provide satiety for a long time. In addition, nuts are a balanced snack, more suitable than, for example, dried fruits or chocolate bars.

Many scientific papers have linked the addition of nuts to the diet to reduce hunger. For example, studies are available on snacking on almonds.

In another study, 200 people had to eat a serving of peanuts for a snack. As a result, the subjects began to consume fewer calories throughout the day. It is worth noting that the effect was stronger when peanuts were used specifically as a snack, and not during the main meal.

In other words, eating nuts as a snack increases the feeling of fullness, which leads to less consumption of other foods and helps to maintain weight.

When is the best time to eat nuts?

Since nuts are very high in calories, it is better to eat most of them in the morning, as an addition to the main meal or as a snack. To keep such a healthy snack always at hand, you can pack the nuts in small portions into bags and leave them in your bag or car.

How many nuts can you eat per day

There is no one answer for everyone here. Look again at how many nutrients are contained in one serving of a particular nut - this will allow you to understand how many nuts you can eat. Take advantage of the advice about laying out the nuts in advance in small portions - this will help not to overdo it with calories.


Be careful with urbech and nut butters, as they contain a concentrated amount of calories and fat and are very easy to overeat.

Harm nuts

The harm of nuts, like many other products, mainly comes from their overabundance. If you use them in adequate quantities for you, then they will not bring harm.

Nuts can be harmful if not used properly. They contain phytic acid, which, once in the digestive tract, combines with minerals such as calcium, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc, thereby blocking their absorption.


Although phytic acid reduces the absorption of minerals during meals, it does not have any effect on subsequent meals. For example, snacking on nuts between meals can reduce the amount of iron, zinc, and calcium you absorb from those nuts, but not from all the food you eat in a day. However, if you eat high-phytate foods with most meals (which are also found in seeds, grains, and legumes), then you may be susceptible to mineral deficiencies.

In addition to phytic acid, raw nuts contain a significant amount of enzyme inhibitors that prevent premature germination of nuts or seeds. Enzyme inhibitors can also bind minerals and cause digestive upset, such as feeling full after eating nuts. This can be easily solved by soaking the nuts. Soaking is a method of deactivating these substances.

Soaking time for different nuts:


soak time


8 ocloc'k


10-12 hours

Brazilian nut

10-12 hours


8-10 hours


8-10 hours


8-10 hours

We turn to the conclusion: Nuts are just a storehouse of useful substances. Their health benefits are confirmed by dozens of studies. Adding nuts to your diet will help you get the vitamins and minerals you need, as well as healthy fats. Due to their nutritional value, they satisfy hunger well and provide long satiety, so they can be used even when losing weight. However, do not forget about their high calorie content and adjust the amount of servings. And in order to get only benefit from them, without harm to health and digestion, it is necessary to soak them before use. Knowing these little nuances, you can enjoy nuts without remorse.


Diet On Fats: Basic Principles And Effects On The Body

In the article we will tell:

  1. The basic principles of a fat diet and its effect on the body
  2. Good and unhealthy fats
  3. How much fat to eat
  4. Benefits of a fat diet
  5. Disadvantages and contraindications
  6. The results of a fat diet
  7. Menu planning for the week
  8. Fat diet menu for 3 days
  9. What to do if a breakdown occurs
  10. The right way out of a fat diet

A few years ago, fats were feared, and low-fat foods were popular among the population. Now the marketing campaigns are bringing in other health benefits - "healthy fats", "rich in omega 3s".

A diet rich in fat is one of the most affordable ways to lose weight quickly and safely. Sounds appealing – you can eat delicious meals with healthy fats and still burn excess fat. To understand whether it suits you, learn about the advantages and disadvantages, what principles to follow on a fat diet in order to get results and not harm your health, read the article.

The basic principles of a fat diet and its effect on the body

A high-fat diet means reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing protein and fat intake.

With a fat diet, the composition of an average meal is as follows: 75% fat, 20% protein and 5% carbohydrates. When the body receives less than 20 grams of carbohydrates per day, it enters ketosis.

Since the diet involves a reduction in carbohydrates in the diet, you should gradually reduce their amount, starting with fast carbohydrates - all industrial sweets, pastries, fruits with a glycemic index. And then limit starchy vegetables, grains and legumes.

The basis of the carbohydrate component on a fat diet is vegetables and herbs.

For most people, this transition can take anywhere from a few days to a week.


The effects of ketosis on the body


  • Weight loss.

  • Reducing the amount of fat in the body.

  • Reduced cravings for sweets and food in general.

  • Increase in energy.

  • Clarity of thought.


  • specific breathing.

  • Keto flu.

  • Constipation/diarrhea.

  • Sensation of contraction of muscles.

  • Sleep disturbance.


Types of fat diets:

  • Keto diet / ketogenic diet.

  • LCHF LCHF stands for low carb high fat.

  • Paleo diet.

  • Atkins Diet.

  • AIP.

Despite some differences in the listed diets, the basics of the diet are similar to each other.

Main product list:

  • all types of natural meat;

  • useful natural oils;

  • eggs;

  • fish;

  • mushrooms;

  • whole dairy products;

  • vegetables.

Additional products:

  • nuts;

  • berries;

  • cocoa / coffee;

  • natural sweeteners.

List of foods restricted in the diet:

  • unsweetened fruits;

  • moderately starchy vegetables (carrots, beets);

  • unsweetened alcohol;

  • industrially processed products (sausages, semi-finished products).

Strict exception:

  • cereal products;

  • glucose- and fructose-containing foods, including hidden sugar;

  • sweet fruits (bananas), dried fruits;

  • high-starchy foods;

  • cereals.

Since the diet is called fat, it is first of all worth figuring out which foods rich in fats to focus on.

Good and unhealthy fats

We can get several types of fats from food: trans fats, saturated fats and unsaturated fats. What role does each species play? Let's understand without labels "good / bad", because you should always consider the number and individual recommendations for BJU - they will never be the same.

  1. Saturated fats - strengthen the cellular structure and nourish the brain, are indispensable for building up the protective layer of internal organs, are their shock absorber and retainer.

    They are considered evil and are advised to be completely excluded from the diet in order to avoid high cholesterol. But there is another opinion - they are put in the ranks of superfoods that give energy and feed our brain.

    In the average person's diet, sources of saturated fat include foods such as: cheese, prepared foods with cheese, baked goods containing fat, desserts such as ice cream, industrial meat products, eggs, and butter. Mostly these are products of animal origin.


    We need saturated fats in small amounts for healthy hormones. For example, in the form of coconut oil. It's not just a saturated fat, it's mostly medium chain triglycerides, which are much easier to digest than many other fats due to less stress on the gallbladder.

    On average, the normal intake of saturated fat is about 5-7%.


  2. Unsaturated fats are fatty acids with one or more double bonds.

    They are divided into:

    • monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) - contain one double bond;

    • polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) - contain two or more double bonds.


Research has shown that these types of fats help reduce inflammation in the body. They also lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Avocados, chia seeds, peanut butter, and olive oil are all plant-based sources of unsaturated fats.

In addition, control the intake of Omega 3 fatty acids.

Adults need to consume at least one gram of omega-3 per day.

Omega 3 in the composition of fish oil performs many useful functions in the human body: it helps the synthesis of sex hormones; stimulates the brain, memory, attention; improves joint mobility; responsible for lipid balance, other metabolic processes; fights oncological processes.

If you are on a plant-based diet or are allergic to fish oils, it is possible to get Omega 3 from seeds and nuts. Chia seeds are a great option.

They are very low in calories and rich in nutrients. Chia seeds are almost carb-free, making them the perfect ingredient for a keto diet. They can make your meals taste better without adding calories or carbs.

This is a fairly versatile ingredient, they can be added to snacks in different ways. Here are some quick ideas:

What are trans fats?

These are saturated fats that have been oxidized or heated to 180 degrees or more. The most famous trans fat is margarine. Heating vegetable oils is a direct route to trans fats.

These fats are found in foods that contain partially hydrogenated oils, such as fried potatoes and other fried foods, some store-bought baked goods, and packaged foods such as cookies, crackers, and muffins.

These types of fats cause inflammation and increase cholesterol levels, leading to an increased risk of heart disease. Trans fats reduce the body's sensitivity to insulin and increase the risk of diabetes.

If everything is clear with trans fats, in many countries their use is even officially prohibited due to the negative effect on health.

And in other types of fats there must be a balance. If you use coconut oil one day, ghee or avocado the next, you will be getting a variety of fats that will best support your health.

How much fat to eat

There is no single figure for everyone, it is important to correctly individually calculate your amount of fat during the day. To do this, remember how the daily calorie is distributed:

  • 75% fat

  • 20% proteins

  • 5% carbohydrates

For example, your daily calorie intake is 1600 (this depends on weight, age and type of physical activity).

Then the share of fats accounts for 1200 kcal, and in 1 g of fat \u003d 9 kcal, respectively, 134 grams.

What can we fit into these 1200 kcal or 134 g of fat?

Approximate fat content in food:

Avocado (100 gr)

14.6 g

Turkey meat (100 gr)

22 g


24.3 g

Ghee butter (tbsp)

9.9 g

Coconut oil (tbsp)

12 g

Olive oil (tbsp)

13.5 g

Chia seeds (4 tablespoons)

13.2 g

Chicken egg (2 pcs)

24 g

By the same principle, you can calculate all the main components of the diet - proteins and carbohydrates.

Benefits of a fat diet

Jimmy Moore, author of Keto Clarity, lists the following health benefits of the keto diet:

  • hunger and appetite control;

  • mental clarity;

  • weight loss

  • sleep improvement;

  • stabilization of blood sugar levels and improvement of insulin sensitivity;

  • lowering blood pressure;

  • greater energy;

  • relief of heartburn;

  • strengthening immunity and slowing down biological aging;

  • memory improvement;

  • improvement of the skin condition;

  • less anxiety;

  • strengthening self-discipline.


Disadvantages and contraindications

Potential adverse reactions on a high-fat diet:

  • Increased hair loss.

  • Deficiency of calories, protein, vitamins, stress.

  • Keto flu (requires more fluids, salt, less other electrolytes).

  • Rapid heart rate (may be due to increased cortisol).

  • Increased cholesterol (it is necessary to evaluate an extended lipid profile, may be temporary, associated with cholestasis, genetic characteristics).

  • Keto rash (perhaps as a manifestation of egg allergy or pantothenic acid deficiency).

  • Violation of the menstrual cycle (associated with a decrease in calories, protein, overtraining).

  • Decreased tolerance to alcohol (intoxication occurs faster, hangovers are more severe).

Absolute contraindications:

  1. Birth defects of certain enzymes:

    • Deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) types 1 and 2.

    • Deficiency of carnitine translocase.

    • Violation of beta-oxidation of fatty acids.

    • Deficiency of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthetase (mHMGS).

    • Short chain acyl dihydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency.

    • Medium chain acyl dihydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency.

    • Long chain acyl dehydrogenase (LCAD) deficiency.

    • Deficiency of medium-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A.

    • Deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A.

    • Porfiry.


  2. Alison's disease

  3. Any acute condition

  4. Terminal stages of renal and hepatic insufficiency.


Conditions in which ketosis is allowed, but requires menu correction or special supplements:

  • Hereditary familial hypercholesterolemia.

  • APOE genotype.

  • Gilbert's syndrome.

  • Hypothyroidism

  • Low cortisol.

  • ZhKB. History of cholecystectomy.

  • Wrong genes.

  • True, familial gout.

  • Oxalate stones in the kidney.

  • Erased forms of congenital defects in enzymes of beta oxidation of fatty acids, carnitine metabolism.

  • Constant breakdowns and close to it - "did not remove sugar, but added fat."

  • Type 1 diabetes or insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes, if you are not ready to delve into and confused about how to adjust your insulin doses.

  • Pregnancy and the period of unsettled lactation.

The results of a fat diet

To evaluate the effectiveness of the diet, we recommend taking the following tests before starting keto and 3 months after starting keto:

  • Extended lipid profile.

  • TSH, T3, T4, reverse T3.

  • Glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin.

  • Homocysteine.

  • ALT, AST.

  • blood electrolytes.

  • Creatinine, uric acid.

  • fibrinogen.

  • SRP.

  • HMS according to Osipov.

  • Vitamin D, calcium ionized.

  • Vitamin B12 (preferably organic acids).

Menu planning for the week

Basic planning principles:

    1. Start planning with protein.

      First, divide it by the number of meals you plan to eat. It is better that each meal is balanced within the proportion of the fat diet.

      It is not necessary to "get" protein with protein shakes, increase the products that you have chosen.


  1. Choose fatty sources of protein: minced meat, lean meats, bacon, eggs, fatty parts of chicken - legs, wings, thighs.

  2. At first, do not cook complex dishes. Your task is to see the proportions of the fat diet on the plate.

  3. It is also important not just to adjust the BJU, but to pay attention to the volume of food, to the sensations that you get. Remember: don't starve or overeat! For example, pay attention to the size of a serving of meat relative to your palm, etc.

  4. Do not count the oil you are cooking with, as its entire volume does not fall into the plate. Yes, food will absorb some part, but this is a small amount. The exception will be foods that absorb oil well, such as eggplant, zucchini, etc.

  5. Oils can be added to ready-made food (a piece of butter on scrambled eggs), in coffee (bronecoffee), in salads. Use unrefined oil.


    Fats are the backbone of the keto diet and should be of good quality. Count the oil you add to cooked food.

    By planning a diet of proteins and fats, you have already created the basis of your daily calorie intake. It remains to add vegetables.


  6. No need for carbohydrates! And their main source on keto is vegetables. Vegetables are all good as a source of fiber, but the minerals and phytonutrients that they contain are important to us, so dark green leafy, cruciferous ones will be the best for us.

In order to have an example of what to focus on, we will present a menu of a fat diet for a full 3 days.

The advantage of this menu is that the dishes are quite filling and relatively easy to prepare.

Fat diet menu for 3 days

Day 1

Breakfast: Keto pancakes and stir fry broccoli.

Crack two eggs into a bowl and add half a tablespoon of almond flour. Then generously add ghee and a pinch of salt for flavor. Shake until evenly liquid consistency. Melt the butter in a frying pan and fry the pancakes one at a time.

Cut small broccoli into florets and wash them under running water. Heat olive oil in a pan and add minced garlic. Once fragrant, gradually add the broccoli florets, frying them for 1-2 minutes. Add some sea salt and breakfast is ready.

Snack: Assorted nuts.

You can eat a handful of different nuts to prevent hunger pangs.

Lunch: Stir-fried chicken and vegetables.

Heat the oil in a frying pan, add 0.5 kg of minced chicken breast. Cut cabbage, peppers and tomatoes, add them after 5 minutes. Stir, after another five minutes, add the ginger-garlic paste. Turn off the stove, rub some cheese on top.

Dinner: Broccoli and mushroom salad with diced chicken.

Cut small pieces of broccoli and mushrooms into small pieces. Cut into cubes 100 g chicken breast. Heat the coconut oil in a wok and add the chicken first. When the chicken is lightly fried, put it in a bowl and put a piece of ghee in the pan. Saute the broccoli and mushrooms for a minute, then put the chicken back in. Add a few minced garlic cloves and saute for 2 minutes. Turn off the stove and sprinkle generously with oregano. The supper is ready.

Day 2

Breakfast: Scrambled eggs, grilled Brussels sprouts.

Break two large eggs, add a pinch of salt and pepper. Beat until smooth. Cut into small pieces half the onion and one tomato, add to the eggs. Melt some ghee in a frying pan, pour in the egg mixture and start stirring it with a spatula. When the eggs are half cooked, you can grate some cheese for flavor.

Prick brussels sprouts on a skewer and coat with minced garlic and ginger and olive oil. Grill for 5 minutes on each side until light golden brown.

Snack: Vegetable sticks with linseed oil.

Cut carrots and/or celery into 7-8 cm sticks. Dip them in flaxseed oil for a quick and tasty snack.

Lunch: Kale roll with shrimps.

Take a large leaf of kale and soak it in salt water for 30 seconds. Sprinkle 450g shrimp with sea salt and pepper. Cut into small cubes 1 tomato and 1 bell pepper. Heat up the oil and fry the tomatoes and peppers first. After a minute, add the shrimp and fry all the ingredients for another 1 minute. Add 1 tablespoon of ghee and a few minced garlic cloves, fry for another minute. Turn off the stove. The filling is ready. Put it evenly on a cabbage leaf and wrap it in a beautiful and satisfying roll.


Dinner: Salmon cutlets with mashed potatoes and broccoli.


  • 500 g salmon;

  • 1 egg;

  • ½ piece - onion;

  • 1 tsp salt;

  • 0.5 tsp pepper;

  • 50 g butter.

For puree:

  • 400 g broccoli;

  • 150 g butter;

  • 30 g parmesan cheese;

  • salt and pepper to taste.

Cooking method: 1. Preheat the oven to 170C. Cut the salmon into small pieces and, together with the rest of the ingredients, place in a mixer, mix thoroughly. 2. Form patties and brown them in a pan for 3-4 minutes on each side. Then send the cutlets to the oven for 30-40 minutes. 3. Disassemble the broccoli into inflorescences, place for a couple of minutes in boiling salted water. Drain the water. Using an immersion blender, blend the broccoli with the butter and parmesan, season with salt and pepper to taste.

Day 3

Breakfast: Fruit smoothie

If you love a sweet breakfast, you can make a fruit smoothie that tastes great and is low in carbs. Pour frozen strawberries, raspberries and blueberries into a blender. Add almond or coconut milk for a rich creamy taste. Whisk in a blender. You can sprinkle pieces of almonds and grated coconut on top for taste.

Snack: Egg Cake (serves 2)

Break and beat one egg. Add 3-5 chopped mushrooms. Crush a clove of garlic and add a pinch of sea salt and pepper. Mix well and pour into two cupcake pans. For variety, you can add cheese or tomatoes.

Lunch: Classic egg salad with a twist

Hard boil 2 eggs, crush them, make small pieces. Cut the onion and avocado into small cubes. Then wash a handful of cherry tomatoes. Mix all ingredients in a bowl and add a pinch of salt. You can just squeeze half a lemon and the salad is ready.

Dinner: Meatballs and salad

Take 230 g of ground beef, add chopped garlic, ginger, grated mozzarella and one egg. Mix well and make 5 meatballs. Heat the oil in a frying pan, fry the meatballs for about 10 minutes until a rich golden color. Put the meatballs on a plate, pour one chopped onion into the pan, fry until golden brown. Add 2 chopped tomatoes, continue frying until the consistency of the sauce. Add the garlic paste and coconut milk until the mixture is creamy. Put the meatballs in and cover. Simmer for 15-20 minutes - dinner is ready.

What to do if a breakdown occurs

Despite our best efforts, sometimes things can go wrong. And that's okay. It doesn't mean you failed, it just means you had a little hiccup on a much more important journey towards a healthy lifestyle.

It is important to accept what happened, learn the lessons and move forward. Focusing on progress rather than perfection is an important part of taking care of yourself.

Forgive yourself and keep in mind all the benefits of this way of eating. Remember that it's never too late to start again.

To immediately avoid a breakdown, people who follow a fat diet plan to refeed in advance.

Refeed is a short conscious way out of the diet. It helps to cope with breakdowns, some inconveniences and negative consequences of a long diet.

For example, in the season of watermelons, it can be eaten. This is the simplest example, and you can choose any favorite dish.


Naturally, if you are on a keto diet and are in ketosis, this will bring you out of ketosis. But it's not terrible, and with the right approach, you will very quickly enter ketosis again the next day.

When is the best time to do it?

How to get out of a fat diet

The way out of the fat diet should be neat, smooth. Many have temptations leading to outright gluttony, which can lead, in addition to losing shape, to problems in the pancreas.

A "side effect" of a sudden increase in carbohydrate intake can be carbohydrate swelling. For some people with kidney problems, morning puffiness under the eyes may return in the morning.

To maintain the result of losing weight, it is necessary to smoothly change food preferences.

You can quit keto at any convenient time of the year. In the summer, it is convenient, since during this period there are a lot of berries, fruits, and melons.

But do not abuse, do not overload the gastrointestinal tract immediately and a lot, as there may be a feeling of slight intoxication during digestion. These carbohydrates do not compare with carbohydrates from crystal sugar and various confectionery products.

To properly exit keto, you should take into account age, health characteristics and how active you lead.

What carbohydrates to add to the diet when leaving the fat diet?

At first, you can eat sweet berries little by little. It is better to eat strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, peaches, oranges and cherry plums, as they have a low glycemic index. Every day, increase the amount of carbohydrates, add starchy vegetables, cereals, legumes.

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